By O. Xardas. Northwestern State University, Louisiana.
In some instances medications may be Management of cerebral palsy is direct- prescribed to promote muscle relaxation ed toward providing functional supports to when excessive muscle spasticity or exces- 58 CHAPTER 2 CONDITIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: PART I sive muscle tone is present buy super cialis 80mg cheap impotence in the bible. Anticonvul- alter the individual’s functioning ability or sant medications may be prescribed if well-being purchase super cialis 80mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction viagra doesn't work. Contractures can limit both individuals also have a seizure disorder passive and active joint movement and associated with cerebral palsy. Orthopedic can interfere with self-care, walking, and surgery may be needed to correct joint sitting. Some individuals with cerebral pal- deformities or to lengthen muscles or ten- sy also experience bowel and bladder in- dons in order to decrease muscle spasm. Be- and bladder incontinence can be managed cause of insufﬁcient muscle activity, some through training programs that help indi- individuals may be more prone to osteo- viduals establish dietary control and a reg- porosis, which in turn can cause pain and ular evacuation schedule, as well as increase susceptibility to fractures. Poorly programs to increase awareness of the sen- aligned joints may predispose them to sory stimuli that indicate a need for evac- degenerative joint disease, resulting in uation. In some dental problems through training in oral instances, if individuals have poorly sup- hygiene and regular dental care. A specif- ported sitting posture, scoliosis (lateral ic program of weight bearing and muscle curvature of the spine) may occur, com- activity as well as a diet adequate in cal- promising breathing as well as the func- cium can help to prevent osteoporosis. If coughing and Training that helps individuals increase swallowing ability is insufﬁcient, aspira- posture control and the use of braces and tion of food or ﬂuids may place individ- splints can retard the development of uals at risk of respiratory infections or degenerative joint disease and scoliosis. Training to help individuals develop Although not necessarily a complica- improved breathing patterns, coughing, tion, fatigue secondary to manifestations and lung expansion can decrease the of cerebral palsy can also interfere with chances of aspiration and consequently individuals’ ability to function efﬁciently. Because they may experience difﬁculty with Adequate rest at night as well as estab- motor control and coordination, more lishment of rest periods throughout the energy may be expended to carry out even day can decrease fatigue. Involuntary viduals’ total energy output and adjusting movement or spasticity may also increase their tasks and schedules to ﬁt their needs the amount of energy expended. As a can help preserve energy and prevent result, individuals with cerebral palsy excessive fatigue. Complications of Cerebral Palsy Psychosocial Issues in Cerebral Palsy Because of the manifestations of cere- Although data regarding the psychoso- bral palsy, a variety of complications that cial adjustment of adults with cerebral pal- are secondary to the condition itself can sy are limited, cerebral palsy as a develop- Conditions Affecting the Brain 59 mental disability poses many of the same For adolescents with cerebral palsy, problems as other developmental disabil- opportunities to participate in social activ- ities. Misunderstanding of the condition ities, information related to sexuality, and by parents, teachers, or others with whom opportunities to participate in sexual individuals with cerebral palsy come in exploration and relationships may have contact can perpetuate a sick and depend- been limited. In addition, adolescents ency status rather than one of empower- with cerebral palsy may have a distorted ment. How individuals with cerebral palsy body image and a low self-concept, which were treated in childhood can inﬂuence can affect their social competence, dating, their self-perception and functioning in and sexual behavior. With any type of developmen- als with cerebral palsy, as adolescents as tal disability there is the risk of overpro- well as adults, experience normal desires, tectiveness by parents and others, which they may lack the skills necessary to ful- can impede the individual’s emotional ﬁll those needs. In addition to barriers of development by restricting access to expe- inadequate information, skill, or opportu- riences that are vital to the development nity for appropriate sexual expression, of adequate coping strategies. As a result, they may also experience physical barri- children may learn, at an early age, to use ers because of their disability that make maladaptive behavior to achieve goals. Individu- overly dependent on parents, have been als with communication problems as the given little responsibility for home chores, result of cerebral palsy may have grown up have not been confronted with the typi- in an environment in which family, cal consequences of behavior, or have not friends, and others became accustomed to learned acceptable means of expressing their adaptive communication methods. For often been the focus of a wide variety of instance, those unfamiliar with the indi- services and activities from an early age vidual or with cerebral palsy itself may may continue these expectations into misinterpret problems with hearing or adulthood, demonstrating a sense of ego- unintelligible speech as lack of cognitive centricity that may limit positive social ability. In other instances, because the interactions and lead to further social iso- individual may be difﬁcult to understand, lation. If these behaviors persist into adult- acquaintances may begin to avoid inter- hood, they may become more of an actions with the individual who then impediment to social integration than the becomes socially isolated. At the severity and type of cerebral palsy, times brain damage associated with cere- decreased mobility, problems with eating, bral palsy may also create behavior deﬁcits or problems with personal hygiene may that can interfere with the development further restrict the individual’s social and maintenance of social relationships. Consequently, follow-up through- out the individual’s life may be necessary. Epilepsy As individuals age with their disability, additional limitations may develop. For Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the instance, fatigue is a consideration for nervous system. It is not a disease, but individuals with cerebral palsy, regardless rather a symptom of an underlying neuro- of age. However, as individuals become logical condition in which neurons in the older, endurance for the same activities brain create abnormal electrical discharges once performed may be decreased. The degree to which individu- no single cause of epilepsy, and it can als are able to achieve their goals in a spec- affect anyone at any age.
Explain why development is so critical implantation purchase super cialis 80 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction and smoking, embryo cheap super cialis 80mg free shipping erectile dysfunction medications over the counter, fetus, gestation, and parturition. Why is it likely that a during the embryonic period and list the geneticist would endorse such restrictions? State the approximate time period (in weeks) for the following occurrences: (a) appearance of the arm and leg buds. Van De Graaff: Human Back Matter Appendix A: Answers to © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Objective Questions with Companies, 2001 Explanations Appendix A Answers to Objective Questions with Explanations Chapter 1 9. His body into front (anterior) and back enlargement of a muscle fiber as a dissect. Using reference when describing availability of an adequate number Chapter 2 structures of the body. It we are classified as primates along the breakdown of inorganic connective tissues, muscular was not until the Renaissance that with monkeys and great apes. Basically, the nitrogen, and hydrogen compose from mesoderm, including learn about its structure and kidneys are filtering organs of the over 95% of the body and are often cartilage, bone, and other function. It is molecules and worn and damaged are characteristic of certain kinds Although the Hippocratic oath the anterior surface of the elbow. It was believed that too vertically through the body, but containing trapped particles is the mammary glands are classified as much phlegm, or not enough, there is no vertical plane moved in the bronchioles and compound acinar. Cartilage generally derives to printed material, and was abdomen is centrally located, mitosis immediately following its nutrients from surrounding fluids therefore important in ushering in medial to the right and left metaphase; it precedes the rather than from permeating blood the Renaissance. As compared to sphenoid bone is located located on the anterior side of the 1. When the thought to be important in the acromial extremity of the clavicle 6. Matching: 1(c), 2(d), 3(e), the body of the femur, where the leaves the patient crippled. In this position, the tibialis 4(a), 5(b) posterior gluteal muscles of the hip occurs most commonly between posterior muscle supports the arches 4. Van De Graaff: Human Back Matter Appendix A: Answers to © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Objective Questions with Companies, 2001 Explanations 796 Appendix A Answers to Objective Questions with Explanations Chapter 10 5. A few blood vessels eyebrows are attached to the scalp, within the CNS are called nuclei. The nerves of the upper structure of the brain that most is bordered by the that connect the two cerebral extremity arise from the cords. It also ipsilateral reflex because the reproductive, and digestive internal jugular vein, and vagus relays pain sensations to the receptor and effector organs are on systems. A fracture of the olecranon of the bodies of motor neurons that regulate 1. PNS consists of all of the second lumbar levels, the basic metabolic rate of most organs 2. Myelination is the process of superioris muscle with motor the ejaculation of semen Insulin stimulates the production forming myelin layers that protect fibers. Van De Graaff: Human Back Matter Appendix A: Answers to © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Objective Questions with Companies, 2001 Explanations Appendix A Answers to Objective Questions with Explanations 797 10. The permanent dentition adenohypophysis of the pituitary the footplate of the stapes and the pumping blood at 25 days following includes 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 gland. An surface for physically handling to excessive TSH secretion, which diagnostic of infections or diseases adenoidectomy is the removal of food. The papillae also support results from low levels of thyroxine within the body. Bile and impulse to be conducted to the and inferior vena cavae and the three lobes, the left lung has only a pancreatic juice enter the lumen of cerebrum of the brain. The space between the parietal nutrients from digested food enter heavy pressures. During this interval, causing a decrease in the air the sphincter of ampulla would 4. Air prohibit the entry of these pain are consistent from one systole and blood is being ejected flows through the respiratory tract, products. If a spermatozoon passes effective barrier against diseases of the renal medulla.
There have even been suicides where objective evaluation indicated that the physician was not guilty of wrongdoing 80 mg super cialis with visa effective erectile dysfunction drugs. Risk managers have been criticized for advising strategies that are too time-consuming purchase 80 mg super cialis visa erectile dysfunction age 40. New laws, rules, and court decisions continue to create additional responsibilities and risks for physicians. Finally, it should be kept in mind that a family physician’s best friends in a malpractice lawsuit are the contemporaneous, thoughtful, clearly written medical record and a supportive, competent, caring nurse. Chapter 9 / Emergency Medicine 101 9 Emergency Medicine Michael Jay Bresler, MD, FACEP SUMMARY This chapter reviews some general medical and legal principles, most of which are important regardless of medical specialty. They are particularly relevant to emergency physicians but are also important to physicians from other specialties who treat patients in the emergency department (ED). I then discuss some specific emergency medical conditions that often result in litigation. The topics presented are not meant to be an exhaustive list of potential liability problems, but rather a sample of some of the more com- mon issues that confront physicians and their patients. Key Words: Emergency; emergency medicine; emergency depart- ment; medical-legal; risk management. Emergency physicians revel in the excitement, chaos, and challenge presented by emergency patients. Unfortunately, we are also appreciated by another class of people—plaintiff attor- neys. They like us precisely because we practice in a hectic, somewhat From: Medical Malpractice: A Physician’s Sourcebook Edited by: R. They like us because our patients often are either very ill or will become very ill. And they like us because they know that we cannot always predict which of our patients will become very ill or die in the near future. Although we will be emphasizing the avoidance of liability, remem- ber that the best defense, as is often said, is to do the right thing. Our goal is not just to avoid being sued, it is to practice the best quality medicine of which we are capable for our own sake and, most importantly, for the sake of our patients. GENERAL PRINCIPLES: WE (SHOULD) HOLD THESE TRUTHS TO BE SELF-EVIDENT Communication Is Crucial Let the patient speak. One of the most com- mon complaints of patients filing lawsuits is that they felt the doctor was not really interested in them. The doctor would not let them fully present their problem, and quickly cut them off. This is a real possi- bility, particularly in the emergency department (ED). We are usually quite pressed for time and, as we all know, patients can be rather verbose. Many give the impression that they rather enjoy regaling doctors with their tales of woe. And patients often do not understand what is relevant to us and to their acute problems vs what is more related to their chronic conditions. However, I would suggest first giving patients 1 or 2 minutes to expound before zeroing in on the problem. Usually, they are truly worried about their health, and merely discussing the problem with a caring physician is somewhat therapeutic. You may know more about the medical problem than they do, but they know more about their own symptoms. Obviously, there are some social and/ or medical conditions that demand privacy. At times, it is appropriate to ask a family member or friend to leave the room. However, I would suggest hav- ing the family in the room when appropriate. It usually increases the patient’s comfort level, especially during long waits in the sterile and somewhat intimidating environment of the examining room. Chapter 9 / Emergency Medicine 103 More importantly, family members often provide crucial informa- tion.
An example is controlling the heart rate: In- transmitter into the extracellular space surrounding the ef- creased firing in the sympathetic nerves and simultaneous fector cells (see Fig buy cheap super cialis 80mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment herbal remedy. The response to the ANS output decreased firing in the parasympathetic nerves result in in- originates in some of the effector cells and then propagates creased heart rate generic super cialis 80mg amex erectile dysfunction medications comparison. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the transmitter re- gastrointestinal tract, the parasympathetic nerves increase leased by the preganglionic nerve terminals of both the volume and enzyme content at the same time that sympa- sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions (Fig 6. Some organs, such as the skin and blood vessels, ilar in structure to the receptor at the neuromuscular junc- receive only sympathetic innervation and are regulated by tion. Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release ACh a decrease or increase in a baseline firing rate of the sym- at the synapse with the effectors. Note the structural differences between the synapses at autonomic effectors and skeletal muscle cells. Each class of receptors is further clas- and the target tissues utilizes a muscarinic receptor. This sified as 1 or 2, and 1, 2, or 3 on the basis of responses receptor classification scheme is based on the response of to additional pharmacological agents. They share a general struc- tinic receptor of the ANS is blocked by the antagonist tural similarity with the muscarinic type of ACh receptor. The muscarinic re- the intracellular concentrations of diacylglycerol and inos- ceptor is blocked by atropine. The 2 receptors inhibit adenylyl cy- The nicotinic receptor is of the direct ligand-gated type, clase, while the types stimulate it. The action of NE and meaning that the receptor and the ion channel are con- epinephrine at a synapse is terminated by diffusion of the tained in the same structure. The muscarinic receptor is of molecule away from the synapse and reuptake into the the indirect ligand-gated type and uses a G protein to link nerve terminal. Neurally active peptides are Choline released by the enzyme action is taken back into often colocalized with small molecule transmitters and are the nerve terminal and resynthesized into ACh. The catecholamine norepinephrine sic plexuses of the gut, where amines, amino acid transmit- (NE) is the neurotransmitter for postganglionic synapses of ters, and neurally active peptides are widely distributed. The synapses that the ANS, examples of a colocalized amine and peptide are utilize NE receptors can also be activated by the closely re- seen in the sympathetic division, where NE and neuropep- lated compound epinephrine (adrenaline), which is re- tide Y are coreleased by vasoconstrictor nerves. Vasoactive leased into the general circulation by the adrenal medulla— intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and calcitonin-gene-related hence, the original designation of these type receptors as peptide (CGRP) are released along with ACh from nerve adrenergic. Adrenergic receptors are classified as either terminals innervating the sweat glands. Alpha receptors respond best to epinephrine, less adrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) has been applied to well to NE, and least well to the synthetic compound iso- such nerves. Beta receptors respond best to isoproterenol, portant in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, less well to epinephrine, and least well to NE. Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic division Nicotine Muscarine CH3 N HO CH3 N + H C CH2 N CH3 3 O CH3 Nicotinic receptor Muscarinic Thoracic receptor ACh spinal ACh cord Sympathetic division Nicotinic receptor α or β ACh receptor O CH 3 + CH3 C O CH2 CH2 N CH3 NE CH3 HO The neurochemistry of the auto- FIGURE 6. The structures of the neurotransmitters and the agonists for which the OH synapses were originally named are shown. CHAPTER 6 The Autonomic Nervous System 111 Dorsal root thetic axons to the cervical and lumbosacral spinal nerves ganglion Ventral (Fig. The preganglionic axons that ascend to the cer- nerve root vical levels arise from T1 to T5 and form three major gan- Sympathetic glia: the superior, the middle, and the inferior cervical chain ganglia. Preganglionic axons descend below L3, forming two additional lumbar and at least four sacral ganglia. The preganglionic axons may synapse with postganglionic neu- Vertebral body rons in the paravertebral ganglion at the same level, ascend or descend up to several spinal levels and then synapse, or Spinal nerve pass through the paravertebral ganglia en route to a pre- vertebral ganglion. Rib Postganglionic axons that are destined for somatic struc- tures—such as sweat glands, pilomotor muscles, or blood Gray White vessels of the skin and skeletal muscles—leave the paraver- ramus ramus tebral ganglion in the gray ramus and rejoin the spinal Paravertebral nerve for distribution to the target tissues. Postganglionic sympathetic axons to the head, heart, and lungs originate in the cervical ganglion or upper thoracic paravertebral ganglia and make their way to the specific organs as identifiable, separate nerves (e.
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