By U. Yussuf. Marian College. 2018.
Akazawa H discount propecia 5mg fast delivery hair loss cure on the way, Oda K buy propecia 5 mg on line hair loss in men robes, Mitani S, Yoshitaka T, Asaumi K, Inoue H gree of independence during the first 6–18 months of life. J Bone Joint Surg Br 80: At birth the head circumference is normal, although head 636–40 growth is subsequently delayed [9, 42]. Axt MW, Niethard FU, Döderlein L, Weber M (1997) Principles of tive functions, including the use of the hands, speech and treatment of the upper extremity in arthrogryposis multiplex the ability to walk, progressively disappear after the age of congenita type I. J Pediatr Orthop B 6:179–85 6–18 months, resulting in apraxia of gait and trunk con- 3. Banker BQ (1985) Neuropathologic aspects of arthrogryposis mul- tiplex congenita. Bauman ML, Kemper TL, Arin DM (1995) Pervasive neuroanatomic problems, apnea attacks, spasticity, scoliosis and mental abnormalities of the brain in three cases of Rett’s syndrome. The patients show typical stereotypic hand rology 45: 1581–6 movements [4, 13]. Bernd L, Martini AK, Schiltenwolf M, Graf J (1990) Die Hyperpha- The scoliosis is the main orthopaedic problem in Rett langie beim Pierre-Robin-Syndrom. Beuren AJ, Apitz J, Harmjan TZ (1962) Supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome, with a reported incidence of over 50%. Circulation 26: 1235–40 shaped scoliosis, in some cases with hypokyphosis, that 7. Brunner R (1997) Auswirkungen der aponeurotischen Verlänger- responds poorly to conservative treatment. Brunner R, Hefti F, Tgetgel JD (1997) Arthrogrypotic joint contrac- tigem Zustand im Neugeborenenalter. Schweiz Med Wochenschr ture at the knee and the foot-Correction with a circular frame. Rees D, Jones MW, Owen R, Dorgan JC (1989) Scoliosis surgery in München Wien Baltimore the Prader-Willi syndrome. Rett A (1966) Über ein eigenartiges hirnatrophisches Syndrom bei mity of the knee in children and adolescents using the Ilizarov Hyperammonämie im Kindesalter. Dotti M, Orrico A, De Stefano N, Battisti C, Sicurelli F, Severi S, Lam 36. Sodergard J, Ryoppy S (1990) The knee in arthrogryposis multi- C, Galli L, Sorrentino V, Federico A (2002) A Rett syndrome MECP2 plex congenita. J Pediatr Orthop 10: 177–82 mutation that causes mental retardation in men. Spero CR, Simon GS, Tornetta P (1994) Clubfeet and tarsal coali- 226–30 tion. Guidera KJ, Borrelli J Jr, Raney E, Thompson-Rangel T, Ogden JA nant oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. Harrison DJ, Webb PJ (1990) Scoliosis in the Rett syndrome: natural (2003) Mutations in TNNT3 cause multiple congenital contrac- history and treatment. Brain Dev 12: 154–6 tures: a second locus for distal arthrogryposis type 2B. Healey D, Letts M, Jarvis J (2002) Cervical spine instability in chil- Genet 73: 212–4 dren with Goldenhars syndrome. Herzenberg JE, Davis JR, Paley D, Bhave A (1994) Mechanical evidence for absence of the facial nerve in Moebius syndrome. Hoffmann K, Muller JS, Stricker S, Megarbane A, Rajab A, Lindner stenosis. Circulation 24:1311-8 TH, Cohen M, Chouery E, Adaimy L, Ghanem I, Delague V, Bolt- 43. Witkowski R, Prokop O, Ullrich E (1995) Lexikon der Syndrome und shauser E, Talim B, Horvath R, Robinson PN, Lochmuller H, Hubner Fehlbildungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo C, Mundlos S (2006) Escobar syndrome is a prenatal myasthenia 44. Wynne-Davies R, Gormly J (1985) The prevalence of skelettal dys- caused by disruption of the acetylcholine receptor fetal gamma plasias.
Neither a bone scan nor an MRI scan of subsequent development and is no longer present to will be able to show whether the synchondrosis is loos- any appreciable extent in the neonate generic 1mg propecia overnight delivery hair loss 9 year old, although the plica ened or not buy 1 mg propecia free shipping hair loss in pregnancy. While its actual existence is a normal finding, its anatomical configuration can vary. Its presence was first Treatment established with the introduction of arthroscopy. Evalu- Conservative treatment with local anti-inflammatory ating its pathophysiological significance, however, can measures and possibly immobilization in a cylinder cast prove problematic. Although this usually relieved the symptoms, we still do not know enough about the long- In isolated cases, a plica with a very sharp edge in a fairly term effect of this partial resection. While we ourselves tight knee can rub over the medial femoral condyle dur- have never observed any adverse effects, a more recent ing increasing flexion, producing cartilage damage or method for fragments that are not particularly mobile synovitis at this point. This is a reliable method for relieving the Clinical features, diagnosis symptoms. There are also reports of successful screw Patients complain of exertion-related knee symptoms on fixation of the fragment. On clinical ex- The decision to proceed to arthroscopic resection amination, a band running over the medial femoral con- must be taken with extreme caution. For diagnostic purposes, We consider that arthroscopy is indicated only if the fol- it is very important to establish whether the patients lowing conditions are satisfied: experience this pain as a diffuse or localized symptom palpable mediopatellar band, during palpation of this band. Snapping may occur dur- pronounced, very localized tenderness at this site, 3 ing active flexion between 30° and 60°. If the examiner duration of symptoms more than 3 months, pulls the patella towards the lateral side, traction on the snapping between 30° and 60° flexion. Patients with a symptomatic mediopatellar plica tend to have fairly Resection during arthroscopy is indicated only if the fol- tight knees with no general ligament laxity. A tentative lowing conditions are fulfilled: diagnosis of medial shelf syndrome is confirmed on clini- very sharply-defined, tight medial plica, cal examination. While the mediopatellar plica is visible cartilage damage at the medial femoral condyle, on MRI, such a scan does not provide any information with adjacent synovitis. Since the plica is a physiological phenomenon and always present, we con- Provided these conditions are observed and plica resec- sider that an MRI scan is not indicated for confirming tion is cautiously indicated, a high success rate can be a tentative diagnosis. Since other imaging procedures achieved in treating the medial knee symptoms of these are not helpful either, the definitive diagnosis must be patients. This shows a sharply defined effectively during arthroscopy, the problem can likewise white plica running from the medial recess toward the be solved with minimum morbidity by means of open patella (⊡ Fig. In one study of 369 stress fractures among recruits of the Finnish army, the tibia was the commonest site, occurring in 52% of cases. The metatarsals represented another common site (13%), whereas all other bones were only rarely affected. But such frac- tures occur not just in young adults, but also occasionally in very active sporting adolescents. Clinical features, diagnosis The patient reports a history of chronic, exercise-related pain roughly at shin level. The symptoms occur particu- larly in very active adolescents and can last for months. Clinical examination and palpation may reveal protuber- ance of the anterior tibial margin and local tenderness. Thickening of the cortical bone, usually on the anterior side, is observed on the x-ray (⊡ Fig. Arthroscopic view of amediopatellar plicain a 12-year old fracture is not always visible – and even if it is visible girl: top patella; bottom medial femoral condyle, between the two is the rarely manifests itself as a typical fracture gap –, but only cord-like plica, which rubs over the femoral condyle diffuse osteolysis of varying degree as the consequence of 293 3 3. A check x-ray is taken after 4 weeks, and the uptake on the bone scan is similar. A of the stress fracture can easily be misinterpreted as the change in footwear may be useful as a prophylactic mea- nidus of an osteoid osteoma. Soles with a high proportion of polyurethane and air guishing feature is the fact that the pain resulting from cells can provide effective prophylaxis for runners against a stress fracture is clearly exercise-related, whereas the excessive bending moments. Abernethy PJ, Townsend PR, Rose RM, Radin EL (1978) Is chondro- malacia patellae a separate clinical entity? Aparicio G, Abril J, Calvo E, Alvarez L (1997) Radiologic study of Treatment involves the exclusion of the causal stress, i.
The epinephrine solutions appear to be well tolerated but the effectiveness of these maneuvers is uncertain order 1 mg propecia visa hair loss 6 months after surgery. Another method is to spray topical thrombin solution (1000 U/ml) on bleeding surfaces before application of compressive dressings buy propecia 5mg without a prescription hair loss in neutered male cats. Despite all these interventions, blood loss during extensive excisions is still prodigious. Coagulopathy is one of the more prominent complications associated with massive blood transfusion. Packed red blood cell preparations (PRBCs) are essentially devoid of platelets and whole blood stored for more than 24 h does not possess significant numbers of functional platelets. Whole blood contains essentially normal levels of coagulation factors, with the exception of the volatile factors V and VIII. Because most plasma is removed from PRBCs, they provide a poor source of coagulation factors. Massive blood loss and transfusion with PRBCs or whole blood results in dilutional losses of both platelets and factors V and VIII. Thrombocytopenia is the most common cause of nonsurgical bleeding after massive blood transfusion. In general, 2–4 blood volumes of blood or PRBCs must be transfused before bleeding due to thrombocytopenia will develop. Ob- served platelet counts usually remain higher than calculated values due to release of platelets from sites of sequestration. Bleeding due to thrombocytopenia usually develops when the platelet count drops below 50,000 platelets/ l. Replacement of platelets in adults usually requires transfusion of 6 units of whole blood platelets or 1 unit of single donor platelets in adults. Development of coagulopathy due to depletion of coagulation factors is also possible during massive blood transfusion. Significant prolongation of the prothrombin (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) can result after transfu- sion of 10–12 units of packed red blood cells. In general, fresh frozen plasma should be given to correct dilutional coagulopathy if the PT and PTT exceed 1. It is also important to know the fibrinogen level in massively transfused patients, since hypofibrinogenemia can also result in prolongation of the PT and PTT. Citrate toxicity is possible with rapid infusion of large volumes of blood products. Citrate is universally used as an anticoagulant in the storage of blood because of its ability to bind calcium that is required for activation of the coagula- tion cascade. Patients with normal liver and kidney function are able to respond to a large 130 Woodson citrate load much better than patients with hepatic or renal insufficiency. During massive blood transfusion, citrate can accumulate in the circulation, resulting in a fall in ionized calcium. Hypocalcemia can result in hypotension, reduced cardiac function, and cardiac arrhythmias. However, the level of calcium required for adequate coagulation is much lower than that necessary to maintain cardiovascular stability. Therefore, hypotension and decreased cardiac contractility occur long before coagulation abnormalities are seen. During massive blood transfusion it is generally prudent to monitor ionized calcium, especially if hemodynamic instability is present in the hypocalcemic patient. During the storage of whole blood or packed red cells, potassium leaks from erythrocytes into the extracellular fluid and can accumulate at concentrations of 40–80 mEq/L. Once the RBCs are returned to the in vivo environment, the potassium quickly re-enters RBCs. However, during rapid blood transfusion tran- sient hyperkalemia may result, particularly in patients with renal insufficiency. The transient hyperkalemia, particularly in the presence of hypocalcemia, can lead to cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. In patients with renal insufficiency, potassium load can be minimized by the use of either freshly obtained blood or washed packed RBCs. Hypokalemia can also result from massive blood transfusion due to re- entry of potassium into RBCs and other cells during stress, alkalosis, or massive catecholamine release associated with large volume blood loss.
Significantly hypothermic patients are at very high risk of fatal cardiac arrhythmias and should be KNEE DISLOCATION moved and handled very gently to avoid triggering Although extremely rare and usually associated with a ventricular fibrillation (Jacobsen et al buy propecia 1mg overnight delivery hair loss in menopause prevention, 1997) buy discount propecia 1mg on line hair loss jacksonville fl. Pulses are often difficult to detect in significantly is a very serious injury which may require a high hypothermic patients, so CPR should not be started index of suspicion as many dislocations will have prematurely as it may actually trigger a cardiac spontaneously reduced prior to evaluation. And if CPR is started, it should con- will typically be very swollen and painful and will tinue until warming has been completed; “they’re often demonstrate severe instability in multiple direc- not dead until they’re warm and dead. The seriousness of the injury (3) Pulses are often difficult to detect in significantly hypothermic patients, so CPR should not be started prematurely as it may actually trigger a cardiac dysrhythmia. And if CPR is started, it should continue until warming has been completed; “they’re not dead until they’re warm and dead”. Early reduction of a visible ranging from heat cramps and edema all the way to dislocation is important. Heat stroke is a true medical with a known or suspected dislocation to a medical emergency with high mortality rates if unrecognized. Signs of dehydration (tachycardia, hypotension, and oliguria) are often present, as well as HIP DISLOCATION a temperature >105°F and prominent central nervous Like the knee, this dislocation is rare in sports and system (CNS) and autoregulatory changes. The FP usually involves a high-velocity/high-energy mecha- must keep the following in mind when approaching nism of injury. Posterior dislocations are by far the the hyperthermic athlete: most common type, and the seriousness of this injury a. This occurs in packs around the groin, neck, and axillae) should a matter of hours with 6 h being the danger zone—as be instituted immediately with the goal of therapy approximately 60% of reductions beyond 6 h develop being to lower the core temperature to ≤102°F as AVN, while only 5% of reductions occurring under quickly as possible (Jacobsen et al, 1997). All victims of heatstroke should be transported to a medical facility for fur- HYPOTHERMIA ther care. When approaching the Although rare, lightning injury is one of the more hypothermic athlete, the FP must keep the following frequent injuries by a natural phenomenon with the points in mind: largest number of sports injuries occurring in water 1. Treatment should routinely start with passive exter- sports and most injuries occurring during the months nal rewarming (i. Although to a warm environment, removing all wet clothing, it is by definition an electrical injury, it differs sig- and covering with dry blankets). Active external nificantly from high-voltage electrical injuries in rewarming and core rewarming should usually be both the pattern and severity of injuries as well as the CHAPTER 4 FIELD-SIDE EMERGENCIES 19 immediate treatment. Although the voltage of light- SUMMARY ning is extraordinarily high, it is usually an instanta- neous contact that tends to flash over the outside of a In conclusion, though most sports related injuries are victim’s body, often creating superficial burns, but minor, for the few urgent/emergent events the FP will sparing extensive damage to internal organs and encounter, planning is paramount. Lightning may injure a person by striking appropriate for the event and knowledge of life sup- either the person directly or something they are hold- port techniques is essential. A study of the topics pre- ing, or by splashing over from a nearby person or sented here should be helpful in preparing for object that has been struck. Although it can potentially affect any organ system, injuries to the cardiovascular and neurologic systems tend to be the most common, REFERENCES with the immediate cause of death most commonly being cardiopulmonary arrest (Jacobsen et al, 1997). Clin Sports Minor injuries include dysesthesias, minor burns, Med 16(4):739–753, 1997. The FP should keep the following points in mind Cantu RC: Second-impact syndrome. Clin Sports Med 1: 37–44, when approaching a victim of lightning injury: 1998. Victims do not “retain charge” and are not danger- Colorado Medical Society School and Sports Medicine ous to touch, so CPR should not be delayed for this Committee: Guidelines for the management of concussion in reason. Contrary to popular belief, lightning can and often Committee on Trauma: Advanced Trauma Life Support for does strike the same place twice, so personal safety Doctors: Student Course Manual. Hypotension in a lightning victim should prompt a Crump WJ: Managing adolescent sports head injuries: A case- search for occult hemorrhage or fractures as a based report. Spinal precautions are Cuculino GP, DiMarco CJ: Common ophthalmologic emergen- required. Pupils may become “fixed and dilated” because of Em Med Rep 23(13):163–178, 2002.
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