By H. Volkar. Golden Gate University.
Caution Be careful not to get overheated or exhausted generic 100mg aurogra fast delivery top erectile dysfunction doctor, which may on occasion lead to a temporary increase in some MS symptoms (see Chapter 6) order aurogra 100mg on-line impotence natural remedy. Your own commonsense will normally tell you when you are exerting yourself too much. Generally, if you exercise carefully and regularly, with periodic breaks, you should ﬁnd that you can get the most reward from the exercise. Having a helper In general, the physiotherapist should have indicated how a friend or partner can help but, apart from following those instructions carefully, the following broad points may apply: • Get them to encourage you to undertake as much movement as possible, but don’t let them impede your movements. When MOBILITY AND MANAGING EVERYDAY LIFE 99 it is bad, it may produce muscle and joint strains, and secondary back problems. Furthermore, bad posture in a wheelchair or other chair may have more profound constrictive effects on your breathing and chest. Sports The diagnosis of MS in itself should make no difference as to whether you continue to play sports or not. The key issues are whether you enjoy playing the sport, whether you feel that you can play the sport as well, or nearly as well, as you did before, and whether you feel that there are any inherent problems, e. You might be able to change your approach to sport later, perhaps by playing at a different level, if you feel that there may be problems for you at the highest competitive level. Nevertheless, sporting exercise is good for you, especially if you enjoy and beneﬁt from it. Fatigue and exercises If you feel too tired to exercise, the key to solving this problem may be working out ways in which you can take advantage of the times when you feel less fatigued in order to do modest but well-targeted exercise. Look carefully at the day-to-day activities you undertake, to see whether they might be rearranged and result in less fatigue. Sometimes, introducing rest periods and using speciﬁc aids for certain activities will result in less fatigue, and the chance to undertake limited and helpful exercises. You may also need, perhaps in consultation with a physio- therapist, to review the exercises to make them less vigorous. After all, it is not only a question of getting your exercise regimen right, but of getting a good balance between exercise and relaxation. Weakness and exercise Physiotherapy, or exercise in general, cannot ‘mend’ the damaged nerve ﬁbres that lead to less effective control of muscles. Weakness in the legs, 100 MANAGING YOUR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS and problems of balance, may be due directly to less effective nerve conduction, but exercise may help other causes of weakness. Devise a programme of exercise with your physiotherapist making sure that any special exercises that you do undertake, e. Whilst normally some recovery is usual from the symptoms experienced at the height of an attack, the extent of this recovery can vary a lot. If demyelination has been quite substantial, there is little you can do through an exercise programme to reduce this damage, but you should still do leg exercises in order to keep your muscles as strong as possible, and to maintain ﬂexibility so that, if more spontaneous recovery occurs, you will be able to take advantage of this. In any case it is very important to continue undertaking leg exercises, so that you can sit more comfortably and avoid some of the problems that can come with prolonged sitting. Spasticity and exercise A regular programme of stretching and related exercises can help muscular development, or at the very least help prevent the muscles wasting away. Keep your head as central as possible when doing exercises and, if spasticity does occur, do a passive exercise as smoothly as possible to relax your muscles. On occasion it has been found that towels dipped in iced water and applied to the relevant area for a few minutes at most may help the muscles to relax. Unfortunately, as MS progresses, even with the most helpful exercise programme, additional means – usually prescribed drugs – may be necessary to assist the spasticity. Swimming Swimming is a good form of exercise for everyone, but especially for people with MS, because your body weight is supported by the water. Weakened muscles can operate in this environment and will strengthen from the resistance. In addition, as swimming involves many muscle systems in your body, it can help to increase coordination. Your main practical problems may be issues such as where the changing rooms are in relation to the pool, and obtaining assistance to reach, and return from, the pool. There are now more and more MOBILITY AND MANAGING EVERYDAY LIFE 101 swimming pools and leisure centres offering special sessions for people who need special help, and it might be worth trying one of these sessions at ﬁrst.
Comparison of successive handbooks for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced life support cheap 100mg aurogra mastercard erectile dysfunction related to prostate, as well as standard regimes for the treatment of some seizures and for asthma reveal not only gross contradictions of the successive standards purchase 100mg aurogra overnight delivery erectile dysfunction va rating, but sometimes even reversals. Few people with extensive experience in these activities adhere slavishly to the standards. Furthermore, many situations are not at all equivalent to games and must remain pervious to outside influence. In these settings, the perception of what is and is not relevant needs to stay open. Unfortunately, the protocol mentality which has been so helpful in some relatively straightforward settings is now being applied to others which are less and less congenial. Such applications to less typical scenarios produce progressively less and less benefit and, I contend, increasing harm. Behind the growth of this mentality, is the idea that there must be only one right way, and that caregivers will be judged by whether or not they adhere to it. Everyone is trying to stampede to the presumed security of the middle of the pack, if only a middle could be identified with certainty. Since actually operative category structure, imagistic and metaphorical reasoning and narrative structures as outlined above are the way causal logic really works, the "standardization" mentality prevents us from reasoning comprehensively about cause and effect. Patients are individuals and their illnesses are embedded in unique life narratives. The meaning and import of any particular symptom or problem depends partly on its place in the life story. Backgrounds, or contexts of care, differ one from another and, in addition, are constantly changing and evolving. Accordingly, what can be "mandated" or "indicated" depends entirely on resource availability. Priorities for the use of resources, including time as a resource are determined on empirical grounds using informal, not formal reasoning. There are multiple, conflicting and partly metaphorical concepts of "disease" and "health," as I will show in Chapter Two. Research on how this category is structured within and across various cultures and value systems is to my knowledge lacking. A preliminary sketch of the "disease" category in Anglo-American culture will also come in Chapter Two. The collaborative work of a patient and a caregiver can produce new values and should produce new knowledge for both in any circumstance which is not routine. No patient encounter can be successfully approached as "routine" for long, because novel discovery and mutuality in dialogue generates most of the benefit in any but the most superficial or purely technical relationship. A caring professional must be one whose values are not impervious and who can actually learn from shared experience with the patient. Some actions need to be evaluated partly by how they affect this relationship, because the efficacy of much subsequent work depends on its strength. This chapter has used the field of medical care to demonstrate how our everyday operational and common sense uses a deeply embedded yet informal semantic architecture. The topography of categories, the variety of image schemas, the multi- plicity of metaphors and the plastic nature of scenarios and narratives provides a rich menu of possible alternatives for reasoning about means and ends. These cognitive structures, as opposed to those of formal logic, grow out of full-bodied experience not limited to the manipulation of numbers, symbol strings and propo- sitions. Informal reasoning (the lately despised "clinical judgment") picks and chooses, but not in an arbitrary way, among these structures to apply them in fluid situations. It is our job to appreciate the situations best understood by using a custom set of cognitive tools. The failure of a category, a metaphor, or a causal logic to give satisfaction when used in a given situation is not an adequate reason to strike that tool from our cognitive kit. We have in our culture and language several conceptual alternatives which are not understood or appreciated by those who would dispense with them in the name of "efficiency.
The stress distribution on a cross section close to the ends of the mus- cle and at midsection are illustrated in (b) and (c) discount aurogra 100mg online impotence male, respectively order aurogra 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction medicine in dubai. Internal Forces and the Human Body region that the fibers of the dense connective tissue of the muscle con- verge and become interwoven to each other to form tendon. Much of the force carried by the muscle is carried by this connective tissue in the end regions. In the belly region of the muscle, however, the cross-sectional area is large and the average tensile stress is small compared to the ten- sile stress carried by the adjacent tendons. Because the major muscles of the human body must produce forces comparable to the body weight, the cross-sectional area of a skeletal muscle in the belly region can be of the order of tens of centimeters squared. It is the belly part of the muscle that undergoes significant shortening during muscle contraction. The shape of the parallel muscle suggests that, in human body structure, the form (shape) may follow function. The moment created by a muscle about a joint on which it acts depends on the moment arm, and that is determined by the geometry of insertion of its tendon to the bone. Ligaments like ten- dons carry tension and again like tendons can store elastic energy. They will stretch small amounts under the application of tensile force, and un- der normal circumstances, they return to their resting length upon the lifting of load. Long bones are irreg- ular hollow cylinders filled with a loose cellular tissue (the marrow) con- taining blood and other matter. The compact bone is a composite of or- ganic and inorganic material, the organic phase being nearly all collagen. The inorganic phase consists of water and a mineral salt called hydrox- yapatitie. Electron microscopy has shown that the hydroxyapatite is in the form of very fine needles only 15 nm wide and up to 10 times as long. The bone matrix in which they are embedded lowers the stiffness and protects the needles from breaking. The average value of Young’s modulus (stiffness coefficient) is 20,000 N/mm2, about one-tenth of that for steel. If the bones taken from a ca- daver are dried and then tested, they fail at a tensile stress of about 100 6. A man whose humerus had fractured ear- lier believed that he was now healed but that he had a stiff elbow. His friend placed one hand on the forearm just below the elbow and the other just above the wrist and pushed in opposite directions with a force of 15 N. Apparently, he had pushed too strongly; the humerus failed at its weakest point, the original fracture site, shown as BB9 in the figure. Determine the maximum tensile stress that occurred at the fracture site during bending. Assume that the normal stress varied linearly along the cross section of the humerus. Fracturing of the humerus bone of a person with stiff elbow, re- sulting from incorrect manipulation at the forearm (a). Internal Forces and the Human Body Solution: The free-body diagrams of the arm is shown in Fig. Because the el- bow was stiff, it did not bend during the manipulation of the forearm. According to the free-body diagram, the magnitude of the net mo- ment acting on a cross section of the humerus is given as follows: M 5 15 N? We had seen earlier (in Chapter 5) that bending moment caused axial stress in a cantilever beam. If the humerus could be considered as a linearly elastic solid, the stress distri- bution would be linear (Fig.
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