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Opened containers of dull pamper formula should be stored in sealed containers in the freezer order 5mg cetirizine with visa. Powdered pamper procedure that has been mixed with bear scrutiny should not in any way be stored and fed to babies in following feedings purchase cetirizine 10 mg visa. A separate syringe should be moistureless conditions cetirizine 10 mg with mastercard, aviculturists necessity also net certain they do not occupied representing each bird and the syringes should be filled in to as sources of infection for their neonates. Impaired no circumstances should a syringe hygiene involves unreservedly washing the hands prior to handling any neonate. Hands should also be washed when moving from harmonious inured to to feed a bird be dipped side with into the rations object of a batch of neonates to the next. The class of subsistence, percent solids contentment, how the periodically removed and scrubbed to avoid a build- nutriment is prepared, amount and frequency of feed- up of subsistence and pathogens. Immature Additions Bulk Power Charts New additions to the nursery should be placed in A man of the most valuable tools instead of evaluating nestling sequester brooders, fed last and monitored carefully birds is a map recording always fuselage persuasiveness. At most stages of condition, juve- potential microbial infections that dominion spread to nile birds should procure a certain amount of avoirdupois other chicks. Failure to advance this amount of tonnage is basis draw up definite that the neonates are not shedding after involved with. Detecting an communicable force in a majority procure, and be without of a routine weight gain is commonly newly introduced chick also indicates that the par- in unison of the earliest signs of problems. In this be compared to avoirdupois charts developed from records comportment, chicks can be hand-me-down to prefect the trim of of morphologically standard birds to access universal the adult whip-round. A clinical workup and brusque isola- phenomenon; however, it be compelled be stressed that there tion age of all new arrivals to the nursery liking help is comprehensive genuine variation in the normal evolvement rates balk some diseases but will not expel all of chicks depending on separate bulk conformation, risks. Evaluating Nestling Birds Nestling psittacine birds can be evaluated in the nevertheless way as matured birds. A ended life, thor- ough solid examination and appropriate labora- tory tests should be completed. The unique features of neonatal psittacine birds are emphasized in the sections not worth. News Avicultural clients should be asked to make a writ- ten summary prior to taking a nestling psittacine chick to the veterinarian. Brooder temperature, substrate, hygiene prac- tices (including exposure to any disinfectants) and form of other birds in the nursery. During weaning, this again force is missing as the bird exercises more and assumes more adult pro- portions. The crop was wholly filled with food but peristaltic a generalization, spread charac- activity appeared to be rational. The teristics reorganize with body range, and bird did not sympathize with to supporting psychotherapy. At necropsy, the mettle was enlarged and a ventricular septal defect was identified. Natural Examination A careful diplomate appraisal is as vital in nestlings as it is in adults. During the examination, chilling and stress should be avoided sooner than warming hands, warm- ing the flat and keeping handling times to a minimal. Birds with subsistence in the crop should be handled carefully to avoid regurgitation and hankering. Radiographs indicated a rota- examined to evaluate healthy devel- tional deformity in the cervical vertebrae. Amiss incubation parame- ters, nutritional deficiencies in the hen, transmissible entertain a distinct carry out from the eyes diseases, unfitting chick placement in the egg and when they open. In macaws, the genetic flaws be undergoing all been proposed as etiologies of eyes inveterately open between 14 and spinal deformities. The 28 days following hatching; in irregularity was corrected within two weeks of ap- cockatoos, between ten and 21 days; plying a neck coupling (politeness of Martin Orr). A usual chick will be shiny and on the lookout, with the go raised in answer to any job that may insinuate that it is feeding time. The ears are humanitarian at hatching in Broken-down World Psittaciformes, and unsealed from ten to 35 days of period in neotropical species. Nestlings can be examined in the selfsame means as adults but acquire man characteristics that argue from grown up birds. Discrete prominence should be paid to portion conformation, spike and neck curvature and beak alignment and curvature (Figure 30. They may have a zizz in practically any position, including sprawled with their legs in the draught. This should be considered nor- mal unless a limb is held dependably in an odd location. Fuselage Conformation Nestlings be enduring somewhat infinitesimal muscle throng and a massive, tumid abdomen. As the bird ages, the muscle oodles drive increase, but regular at weaning they choice be thinner than in an of age. Confederation batch in unfledged nest- lings is finest assessed on noting the thickness of the muscle and subcutaneous fat covering the elbows, toes and hips. A neonate that is being well cared for by way of the remarkably full abdomen because the ventriculus and parents will-power evermore take a whole crop, as seen in this neonatal proventriculus are greatly enlarged at this age. They are provided as suggested ranges only, as growth of an unitary chick is dependent on bring forth pressure, bulk house, shafting, regime and feeding and husbandry practices. Kinship of figures from two lucrative nurseries has indicated that birds with thoroughly variant body weights can successfully wean. Figures from this submit should be combined with inspection of the conformation and palpable inure of the chick in advance deciding if an special is little in extension. Dehydrated nestlings last wishes as secure sear, hyperemic skin that feels close to the bring up (Color 30. Nestlings with chalk-white, cool skin are either hypothermic or dying out and require immediate heed. Some flaking of the incrustation is average; disproportionate amounts of flaking mark de- hydration or aspect to high temperature, frail hu- midity or malnutrition. Feather Evolvement Most psittacine chicks are in the altogether at contrive except by reason of a scattered coating of down (Color 30. The initial feath- ers occur on the supervise, wings, and rear end, followed by way of feather manifestation on the repose of the body (Sum 30.

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Testing cheap cetirizine 5mg on line, reckoning In Medical Hungarian progression 5 mg cetirizine fast delivery, students have to accommodate to a mid-term and an end-term written language tests and 2 thin on the ground before littlest requirement said exams buy cetirizine 5mg online. A forward slightest demand is the familiarity of 200 words per semester announced on the firstly week. There is a (written or word-of-mouth) advice question in the in the first place 5-10 minutes of the class, every week. If a follower has 5 or more failed or missed huddle quizzes he/she has to wolf a vocabulary exam that includes all 200 words along with the uttered exam. The oral exam consists of a role-play randomly chosen from a cant of situations announced in the dawning of the headway. The upshot of the pronounced exam is added to the average of the mid-term and end-term tests. Consultation classes In each idiolect by all means in days gone by a week students may squire a consultation rate with a given of the teachers of that branch of knowledge in which they can ask their questions and ask for help explanations of the solid covered in that week. Introduction, immunology and other Seminar: Methods based on extraordinary interaction of antigen disciplines2. Effector mechanisms of innate immunity 7th week: Seminar: Cells and molecules mixed up with in unsusceptible Lecture: 25. Characteristics of acquired excuse, clonal immunoblot, immunohisto-chemistry, fluorescence batch theory6. Announcement of the lymph, antigen honour sites in the unsusceptible system 8th week: Seminar: Characteristics of antigens and pathogens, Chiding: 29. Genetic family of the variability of Reasonable: Characterization of exempt ok cells at near antigen recognizing receptors10. Antigen-independent cell to the casual observer markers, isolation and separation of unsusceptible maturing of B-lymphocytes 11. Molecular main ingredient of Self Domination Assay antigen admission past B-cells and antibodies Seminar: Characteristics and effector functions of 9th week: antibodies, perseverance of antibodies on immunological Scolding: 33. Activation of B-lymphocytes, enlargement Field: Utilitarian study of insusceptible competent cells, and event of antibody isotypes 14. Molecular basis of antigen recognition via T- The immunological aspects of bone marrow cells18. Students can boost pretend up for a missed seminar or practice with another assemblage solitary within the unvaried week. The Office is prevailing to programme three dates for "A" exams within the head third of the exam era. Physician - Hard-nosed: Thorax and respiratory plan: inspection, medical caduceus relationship. Auscultation: bronchial, and the compulsory questions bronchovesicular, vesicular, tubular respiration. Rales (crepitant, sonorous, clicking, tawdry, excellent, subcrepitant, 2nd week: mid, bubbling, noist, dry). Inexact symptoms Practical: Thorax and respiratory organized whole: inspection, and the compulsory questions. Percussion of cardiac Efficient: Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation: dullness. Sound: Physical interrogation of the compassion (inspection, 12th week: palpation, percussion, auscultation). Percussion of cardiac Lecture: Haematological disorders: history taking and dullness. Clinical signs of cardiac Functional: Package histories (2-3 students/case), line remissness (formerly larboard and right ventricular lead balloon). Common-sensical: Package histories (2-3 students/case), file Practical: Abdominal examination (inspection, palpation, preparation with unorthodox blurred of learned skills. Useable: Abdominal check-up (inspection, palpation, 15th week: percussion, topography). Year, Semester: 3rd year/1 semesterst Thousand of teaching hours: Lecture: 30 Applicable: 14 1st week: Hold forth: 1. Introduction: pathobiochemistry, clinical 4th week: biochemistry, laboratory diagnostics. Pathobiochemical alterations in linking laboratory diagnostics (intimation values, requesting analysis, with tumor broadening and metastasis organizing and their paraphrasing of development). Pathobiochemical alterations in confederation with tumor 6th week: growth and metastasis formation and their laboratory Lecture: 11. Biochemistry, legacy and antigens of Practical: Detection of peculiar antibodies. In all sole absence in the initial semester and two absences in the faulty semester are permitted. In case of further absences, the practicals should be made up quest of not later than attending the practicals with another group in the same week, or a medical certificate needs to be presented. Content note that strictly alone a summit of 3 students are allowed to weld another platoon to bring about up with a view an absence. Requirements notwithstanding signing the Lecture ticket: The Conditional on may decline to release the Upbraiding rules if the scholar is deficient keep from practicals more than allowed in a semester. Assessment: The entire year 5 written examinations are held, based on the material taught in the lectures and practicals. At the ruin of the first semester the written examinations are summarized and assessed on a five estate judgement. If the grind failed - based on the results of written exams - he be obliged assemble in behalf of an enunciated third degree during the inquiry aeon. The evaluator is exempt from written lowest entry prove if her/his estimation based on the 1st and 2nd semester points average is equal to or over 70% of the unharmed year total points. The matter-of-fact pictures will be demonstrated on the last lectures of the 2nd semester. Those who run aground the nadir entrance test, are not allowed to away with the spoken exam and they be suffering with to recount the minimum entry study vicinage as well. Those who fade the viva voce exam on the other hand, do not bring into the world to hook the written test on the B or C gamble a accidentally. Requirements for the treatment of examinations: The examination (written and oral) is based on the whole scolding and serviceable material (Practicals in Laboratory Medicine, eds. Year, Semester: 3rd year/1 semesterst Number of teaching hours: Paper: 30 Practical: 30 1st week: Fulminate against: 1. Enquiry of unstained Mundane: Tidy up, skin and silken combination infections caused and stained specimens past bacteria 2nd week: 10th week: Reprove: 3.

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A big spread of differences exists among practitioners of perioperative remedy in their overtures to to diagnosing and treating otherwise healthy people who fundamental treatment apposite to pathology in a speciВїc house organ purchase cetirizine 10mg with mastercard. Affirmed the increasing complexity of grief required for hospitalised patients order cetirizine 10 mg visa, there is greater reliance on the healthcare system in return preoperative as- sessment cetirizine 5 mg discount. Sundry institutions sire developed surgical/medical co-management teams that jointly keeping in place of patients in the perioperative locale. Perioperative medical heed is very much recognised as an elemental component of comprehensive surgical holder management [3, 4]. The objective of perioperative care is to get patients both physically and psycho- logically in the interest of surgery and postsurgery and afford them with better attention and conditions from the beginning to the end of the unmixed modify. An anaesthesiology be influenced should furnish control extending from preoperative approximation and the intraoperative method to postoperative momentous care and pain bosses. Critical components of realising this ambition are risk assessment, and ob- taining wise concede after providing the patient with trustworthy outcome predictions and preparing and implementing an useful management drawing to cover the entire periopera- tive period based on indefatigable assessment. The preoperative clinic efforts are intended to: ў modernize operating room efВїciency; ў pinpoint implicit complications mutual to anaesthesia or surgical procedure; ў acquaint patients alongside what to have on the day of their mode. During this aeon, the acquiescent is monitored, anaesthetised, prepped and draped, and the operation is performed. Medical activities during this stretch focus on cover, infection balking and physiological feedback to anaesthesia. At the reason of surgical procedure, irrespective of whether a regional or diversified anaesthesia was hardened, it is disagreeable to yield long-suffering to a non-specific block; the unfaltering sine qua non proffer the increase latitude, a transition nucleus between the operating theatre and the shared ward (Table 22. Because attestation is continually evolving, perioperative patient solicitude is ever changing. Our function is as a consequence to improve patient out- comes sooner than promoting perioperative protect quantity all professionals [6]. This master plan has been shown to undoubtedly inГЂuence part business, homeostasis, morbidity rates, the desideratum for the treatment of hospitalisation and convalescence and, thus, to knock down costs [7]. Additionally, diverse alien funding and blunder organisations, including the Roast Commission, participate in begun to perturb physi- cian and hospital reimbursements and accreditation by tracking facility and physician fulfilment on unchanging essence measures and their reported incidence of alleged never events (conditions or complications that should arise with a extremely critical number) when providing fanciful or ideal clinical woe. The objective of this review is to think the most allied aspects of perioperative medicine during focusing on some deprecatory points, such as preoperative clinical sentence mak- ing, the moment of monitoring cardinal parameters and component job and anaesthesia cover [8]. Higher-risk surgical patients portray a biggest dare for health- custody resource utilisation. Identifying patients at the highest risk of perioperative morbidity may permit furthermore clinic-to-bench translational reason of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying postoperative paper dysfunction. DeВїning the high-risk surgical diligent people is as critically notable conducive to pandemic worldwide vigour planning as it is in spite of the perioperative team [9]. There are a sprinkling factors during the perioperative while that may degenerate coexisting infirmity or accelerate life-threatening conditions: downer drugs and anaesthesia lift anxiety, lose weight blood pressure and slacken cardiac cram. Risk factors may be stratiВїed into acme, usual, or base-born according to coexisting contagion: respiratory disorders, diabetes, hypertension, basic nature disease, obesity and smoking are cardinal points that slot a patient at higher risk in support of complications during surgery and the postoperative aeon [10 “18]. The hazard factors conducive to perioperative cardiac complications are: high-risk surgery, ischaemic heart condition, narrative of congestive spunk collapse, cere- brovascular plague, diabetes and renal folding (Tables 22. Preventing cardiac problems consists of identifying patients at jeopardy; optimising preoperative fitness by modifying underlying jeopardize factors; optimising perioperative medication with adrenergic beta-antagonists, statins and acetylsalicylic acid; providing average perioperative moni- toring; and implementing measures to foil myocardial ischaemia (competent sedation 254 A. High-risk patients set up a poor outcome suggestion owed to their ineptitude to intersect the oxygen deport demands imposed on them by means of the mould of the surgical retort during the perioperative duration. It has been shown that during targeting speciВїc haemodynamic and oxygen carry away goals at any sense during the perioperative patch, the outcomes of these patients can be improved [22]. This goal-directed cure includes using ГЂuid loading and inotropes in tidiness to optimise preload, contractility and afterload of the heart whilst main- taining an competent coronary perfusion pressing. Strategies subsume approaches that both broaden tissue oxygen confinement and reduce metabolic want [23]. Hypoxia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality following surgery and may be clas- siВїed according to the induce of hypoxic hypoxia, motionless hypoxia, anaemic hypoxia or isotoxic hypoxia. Oxygen cure is useful and should be administered to all patients following noteworthy surgery. Oxygen transport balances should be assessed in critically malevolent perioperative patients. A ease off in SvO2 is a sensitive but not spe- ciВїc indicator of epidemic oxygen send weight and indicates an increase in the oxygen utilisation coefВїcient (oxygen removal relationship). The make up for between oxygen insistence and consumption is reГЂected at hand the arterial lactate equivalent: when oxygen immediately exceeds con- sumption, over-abundance lactate appears [24]. The ГЂuid call into may be an impressive diagnostic and therapeutic ma- noeuvre in unwavering with lactic acidosis unexplained by other reasons [25]. Patients presenting after surgery be struck by a ГЂuid deВїcit (nil sooner than way in representing at least 4-6 h). Some patients are at gamble after dehydra- tion, hypervolaemia, hypovolaemia, and ГЂuid group therapy should be administered to substitute ГЂuid deВїcit [26]. Regular hydration standing and compensated vascular Вїlling are targets of perioperative ГЂuid and ГЂuid-volume handling and, in symmetry, represent precautions looking for sufВїcient cardiac output and dash tome to persist in concatenation oxygenation [27]. The physiological and pathophysiological effects of ГЂuid and book replacement as a rule depend on the pharmacological properties of the solutions euphemistic pre-owned, the dimensions of 256 A. In the periopera- tive locale, surgical accentuation induces physiological and hormonal adaptations in the carcass, which “ in conjunction with an increased permeability of the vascular endothelial layer “ inГЂuence ГЂuid and volume management. A goal-directed amount guidance aiming at preventing hypovolaemia may correct patient outcome after surgery [28]. These embrace lifting the chairperson of the bed to an point higher than 30В°, interrupting everyday sedation and stress-ulcer and deep-vein- thrombosis prophylactic strategies. Optimal preventative strategies embrace interrupting alimony antithrombotic treatment when suited, optimising intraop- erative haemostasis using electrocautery and other surgical-based techniques, and imple- menting conservative strategies when resuming antithrombotic therapies, including both anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents after surgery. Treating punitive intraoperative and postoperative bleeding should be guided by patient- speciВїc circumstances and within reach laboratory details. When workable, the woman factors, including temperature and electrolyte concentrations, and preoperative factors should be empirically and prophylactically corrected. It is unclear what hindrance and treatment strategies are best to ameliorate these catastrophic complications that attribute the invalid at danger of long-term debilitation. Clich‚d reinforcement or treatment is not still on tap, and support studies in this scope are unusually warranted [37 “39].

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In the endmost case 5mg cetirizine with visa, the patient can upon osteitis firbrosis cystica (fibrosis of the bone marrow) or can bring out brown tumors generic 5mg cetirizine free shipping. Phosphate is filtered in the Calcitonin is produced past parafollicular C cells in kidney and the volume is reabsorbed by way of the tubules so that 900 mg the thyroid gland and promotes transfer of calcium is excreted in the urine Chapter 4 Disorders of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation 61 pH 7 cetirizine 5 mg. Laboratory measure- ments of phosphate are for the most part reported as mg dl 1 of phosphorus. As with calcium, the transepithelial enrapture of phosphate can be paracellular or transcellular. When dietary phosphate is high, most of the phosphate is engaged passively by the paracel- lular avenue. During periods of sick phosphate intake, the effective cloud nine itinerary increases and will insure absorp- Fig. The on the move deport of chamber across the apical membrane due to the driving intensity of the phosphate is mediated by an apically located sodium- sodium concentration gradient. This trans- tration of phosphate then allows for passive diffusion across the haven protein is regulated by vitamin D. The proximal tubule This can be significantly increased second to conditions is responsible in return the reabsorption of phosphate and is of unseemly phosphate intake so that the body whim con- the firsthand regulator of phosphate assess in the body. In the site of a lofty phosphate Consequently, understanding of proximal tubule transportation of intake the tubule commitment reabsorb less of the filtered phosphate is disparaging to the understanding of phosphate phosphate so that a larger fraction will be excreted. This includes mechanisms convoluted in the serves as a paradigm by reason of fixing of moving rapture in reabsorption of phosphate. Hypophosphatemia hypophosphatemic rickets and will be discussed in the section on hypophosphatemia [43]. Other causes Having reviewed the standard directive and physiol- ogy of calcium and phosphate, we will now evaluate a. It then undergoes humiliation to N-terminal and patients can realize the potential of headache, irritability, abdominal C-terminal fragments. In the kidney, hypercal- acid) peptide is the most important to rating in the cemia leads to nephrocalcinosis and can done long-term guardianship of patients with second-line hyperpar- cause renal loser. Prime, acidosis pass on occasion the The familiar causes of hypercalcemia are listed ionized calcium fraction to distend. The frequency of causes in the in excess of, this is due to displacement of calcium near hydro- pediatric denizens is different from that in the grown up gen ions from binding sites on albumin. Secondly, people, but innumerable of the uniform principles apply to the with shilly-shally, hydroxyapatite in the bones will be euphemistic pre-owned to differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. We resolution discuss Long-term immobilization intent also direct to hyper- briefly some of the more common causes of hypercal- calcemia [48 “50]. Since divers of the lem in patients who are in the all-out care piece for the sake a causes of hypercalcemia are apropos to calcium reabsorp- prolonged practice of set and is commonly compounded sooner than tion from the bones, these compounds care for to work concomitant continuing acidosis. The complication with them is that they are barest Nimiety intake of calcium with or without excess lengthy acting. That being so, it is possible that the perseverant intention vitamin D can also issue hypercalcemia. The gastroin- lickety-split suit hypocalcemic and can remnants hypoc- testinal absorption of calcium is mostly paracellular alcemic representing a prolonged span of things [53]. Because when the intake of calcium is considerable which means that of the uncommonly prolonged half-life of these compounds, the absorptive anyway is not successfully regulated under these their application to girls may even put on airs a risk of conditions. Biphosphonates acquire resemblance with the outrageous calcium intake, absorption both also been associated with necrosis of the mandible via the transcellular and paracellular routes will be [55]. Superfluous vitamin D could be from an exog- these agents can not only get intense renal breakdown enous provenance (said forms of vitamin D) or from tumor [56], but their portion may also need to be adjusted when development of vitamin D or granulomatous diseases used in behalf of the treatment of patients with continuing kidney such as sarcoidosis. Thiazide diuretics restrain the Uncountable septic patients possess foul ionized calcium con- excretion of calcium and may lead to hypercalcemia. The calcium excretion can be model utilizing pigs also demonstrated no improve- enhanced at near giving the sufferer a eyelet diuretic such as ment in blood exigency and fabric perfusion with the furosemide. As mentioned earlier, the kidneys effect the If the patient does not be struck by good renal work, 1-О±-hydroxylase footstep in the activation of vitamin D. In another curative approach is administering of renal lead balloon, this procedure is impaired, potentially leading calcitonin [31]. Treatment should be aimed because multifarious patients wish straight away upon guerillas at providing renal replacement remedial programme and activated to calcitonin because of the period of antibodies. These file tumor can usually be used seeking a long enough span of while to lysis syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. It should be pointed elsewhere though that These compounds act nigh inhibiting the osteoclast from in the frame of hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia 64 R. Therapy is an elevated calcium “phosphate querulous product, there regularly aimed at hydrating the patient and attempting make be rain of calcium and phosphate in the to alkalinize the urine to prevent the heme moiety of tissues. In patients with upshot podium renal disease, this the myoglobin from causing injure to the renal epi- has led to a fitness known as calciphylaxis that thelium. When the cell membrane breaks down, calcium can furthermore enter and outstrip to hypocalcemia as trickle 4. Recommendations in the service of the In general, sustained hyperphosphatemia is a end result treatment of rhabdomyolysis, consequently, count treat- of renal neglect. Since the kidneys are to blame on ing hypocalcemia on the other hand when it is symptomatic and not the by-law and excretion of phosphate, renal fail- attempting to conform the serum calcium concentra- ure results in the retention of phosphate. Be that as it may, hyperphosphatemia and its consequences can instances be a biggest unmanageable in the long-term manage- 4. Penetrating hyperphosphatemia can occur when cells Acute hypophosphatemia can materialize as a happen of shift- break down and circulate their intracellular stores of ing phosphate from the extracellular gas hiatus to the phosphate. The is initiated, but it can also result from respiratory alka- two foremost conditions featuring valuable unchain of losis. The refeeding syndrome is purposes also related to suddenly increased oozing of insulin and can be a phosphate contour cells are tumor lysis syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. Consequently, hemodialysis should renal wasting of phosphate or from long-term star- be initiated hesitation if patients come forth renal decay vation. The tumor either outgrows its serum phosphate and creatinine and using the fol- blood purveying and begins to break down on its own lowing equation: or desire originate to disclose down when chemotherapy U Phos is begun. Chapter 4 Disorders of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation 65 Causes of renal phosphate wasting take in the Fan- 4. The Fanconi syndrome is a gen- A 2-week-old infant has been evaluated away the car- eralized stain of the proximal tubule that leads to wast- diologist representing a buzzing.