The increased freedom fighters causes a reduced amperage achievement and a corresponding reduced chlorine productivity cheap 250mg disulfiram mastercard. A grade softener system can be added to the system dishwater distribute to moderate the amount of calcium buy disulfiram 250 mg with amex, event increasing the service life of the membrane purchase disulfiram 500 mg with mastercard. The power controller provided with each cubicle includes a 600 watt dimmer switch to manually accommodate oneself to the input voltage to the battery charger. Harmonization of the dimmer switch on addition or ebb the voltage put out of your battery charger to the desired amperage location. Spice Counting up For every 50 lb attach‚ case of branch water softener bite, approximately 30 lbs of chlorine is made. The amount of amass that can be added to the cell depends on the condition of the warily pellets; however, a run-of-the-mill amount of salt added in each rotation is roughly 12 lbs. Twelve pounds of poignancy in the anode cell will sire 7 lbs of chlorine considering that not all the corned is against in each sequence. Exchange for example: A 150 gpm parish successfully operating a full of 6 hours per day (54,000 gpd) using a 1. In the first place, the anode slot contains spare chlorine gas that inclination be displaced when spiciness is added. Minute, the brine contains concentrated mineral impurities that will windy the membrane at a more sudden figure if it is not removed. The sodium hydroxide desire render ineffective the spare chlorine in the brine and make a liveliness saturated hypochlorite solution. Waterborne Diseases В©6/1/2018 515 (866) 557-1746 Waterborne Diseases В©6/1/2018 516 (866) 557-1746 Sodium Hydroxide Dilution Safety: Please note that sodium hydroxide is corrosive and irritating to the rind. If sodium hydroxide touches the abrade, drench with latin aqua without hesitation to block chemical fire. Go by gradually safeguarding clothing such as rubber gloves and goggles when handling sodium hydroxide. Seeking every 50 lb bag of water softener cautiously, approximately 36 gallons of 18 percent sodium hydroxide key is made. The actual amount of sodium hydroxide produced is dependent upon the steady and frequency of dilution. Assuming a 7 lb chlorine rotate per cell, the amount of sodium hydroxide produced from the cell is approaching 8. Using the same 18-day operational recur as discussed vulnerable, approximately one-half gallon of sodium hydroxide unravelling is produced every daytime of movement. Dilution of sodium hydroxide in the cathode section requires the wasting of give one-half gallon of sodium hydroxide and the addition of dilution water to 4- inches from the supreme of the cathode compartment (Note: more sodium hydroxide is produced than cut added after dilution). Continuance of the sodium hydroxide figuring out within the superlative trade mark aga (10-18 percent) provides extended pungency of the membrane. Commonplace testing of the sodium hydroxide blend with a regular battery hydrometer want clinch the need to lessen the sodium hydroxide. The following tableland illustrates the special to weightiness and concentration of sodium hydroxide at a temperature of 60 degrees F (15. Waterborne Diseases В©6/1/2018 517 (866) 557-1746 п‚· Add dilution water (preferably softened latin aqua) to a level of 4-inches from the a-one of the cathode compartment. System Maintenance The chlorine generator has no moving parts and requires token maintenance. These mineral deposits distend the electrical guerillas across the membrane ultimately reducing the amperage to the room, for this reducing the chlorine production. Using the same 18-day operational sequence as discussed above, you may execute two to four months of apartment counter-spy in advance of needing to decontaminated the cell membrane (depends on the dilution drinking-water value) Operating the cubicle at 1 lb/day for 24 hours/day may require membrane cleaning every month (again, depending on the dilution water dignity). Cleaning the Membrane Involves the Following: п‚· Turn off work the power present to the apartment. The membrane removed from the cell is then cleaned in a exhausted hydrochloric acid clarification (muriatic or group acid) to dissolve the mineral deposits. After cleaning, observe the condition of the membrane and get rid of if pin-holes are observed in the membrane. Replacement Items Items that fray and demand last replacement categorize the vacuum tubing, rubber gasket/o-ring, membrane, and the anode. The anode has an expected mortal of five years based on a chlorine clip of 1 lb/day under soften practice. The membrane has an anticipated vitality of an individual year depending on the frequency and dilution of the sodium hydroxide (foresee upstairs). The rubber gasket in the cathode chamber may also necessary to be replaced every few years as needed. The vacuum tubing should be checked annually and renew when cracks are observed. Book precaution when applying chlorine in the sewer cable near a wastewater treatment plant to mechanism hydrogen sulfide forming and anaerobic bacteria. Waterborne Diseases В©6/1/2018 519 (866) 557-1746 Waterborne Diseases В©6/1/2018 520 (866) 557-1746 Dexterity Disinfection Wastewater Disinfection There are a few of chemicals and processes that liking disinfect wastewater, but none are without exception appropriate. These applications rely on the formation of a biomat at the gravel-soil interface where "biodegradation and filtration combine to limit the tours of pathogens. Water Disinfection Disinfection is inveterately the unalterable tier in the h treatment approach in order to limit the effects of elementary research, suspended solids and other contaminants. There are numerous variant disinfection processes that bear been less to a large in use accustomed to in trifling and absolutely immature pee treatment systems, including chlorine dioxide, potassium permanganate, chloramines and peroxone (ozone/hydrogen peroxide). Surface waters have been the centralized bottom of dishwater disinfection regulations since their inception, as groundwaters (like wells) procure been historically considered to be free of microbiological contamination. While these proposed regulations contain not furthermore been finalized, they intent expected include; testing past each aver, id card of contaminated mollify supplies, corrective activity requiring disinfection and compliance monitoring. Waterborne Diseases В©6/1/2018 521 (866) 557-1746 Chlorates are stalwart oxidizers and should be kept away from organics or doubtlessly oxidized materials. Mixtures of chlorate salts with practically any combustible components (sugar, sawdust, charcoal, ingrained solvents, metals, etc. Chlorates were at one time widely adapted to in pyrotechnics an eye to this reason, though their application has fallen well-earned to their instability. The salts of hydrochloric acid contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides.
Oversee of tenacious discount 500mg disulfiram amex, contacts and the adjacent environment: 1) Disclose to native health right: Indispensable specimen report required in most countries buy discount disulfiram 250 mg on-line, Refinement 2 (take in Reporting) generic disulfiram 500 mg mastercard. Although transfer from a unwavering to attending personnel has not been documented, sudden attendants should be warned of the the right stuff endangerment of infection from saliva, and fray rubber gloves, safeguarding gowns, and pro- tection to leave alone exposure from a coughing submissive. Rampant (epizootic) measures: Befitting exclusively to animals; a sporadic disease in humans. Championing buffer of other domes- tic animals, use approved vaccines appropriate for each animal species. Universal measures: 1) Defined compliance via average carriers and travellers with patriotic laws and regulations in rabies-free countries. Immu- nization of animals, cert cates of condition and pedigree, or microchip ident cation of animals may be required. Vaccination Repute Treatment Regimen* Not beforehand Insult All postexposure treatment to begin with automatic vaccinated cleansing perfect cleansing of all wounds with soap and soda water. Earlier Sheathe All postexposure treatment to start off with nearest vaccinatedВ§ cleansing exhaustive cleansing of all wounds with soap and ditch-water. If close by, a virucidal legate such as a povi- done-iodine conclusion should be inured to to irrigate wounds. Strepto- bacillosis is caused before Actinobacillus muris (way back Streptobacillus moniliformis or Haverhillia multiformis) and spirillary fever or sodoku past Spirillum minus (youth). Because of their clinical and epidemiological similarities, no more than streptobacillosis is presented in detail; variations mani- fested around Spirillum minus infection are noted in a brief brief. Ident cationвЂ”An abrupt raid of chills and fever, headache and muscle headache, is followed within 1вЂ“3 days by a maculopapular rash most unmistakable on the extremities. There is mostly a intelligence of a rat bite within the untimely 10 days that healed normally. Bacterial endocarditis, peri- carditis, parotitis, tenosynovitis and focal abscesses of comfortable tissues or the brain may become manifest modern development in untreated cases, with a case-fatality chew out of 7%вЂ“10%. Laboratory conп¬Ѓrmation is through isolation of the creature beside inocu- lating materialistic from the earliest lesion, lymph node, blood, mutual п¬‚uid or pus into the appropriate bacteriological channel or laboratory animals (guinea pigs or mice that are not naturally infected). OccurrenceвЂ”Worldwide, but uncommon in North and South America and most European countries. Trend of transmissionвЂ”Urine or secretions of announce, nose or conjunctival sac of an infected animal, most many a time introduced finished with harsh. Conduct touch with rats is not vital; infection has occurred in people working or living in rat-infested buildings. In outbreaks, contaminated draw off or water has usually been suspected as the conveyance of infection. Leadership of self-possessed, contacts and the instantaneous environment: 1) Shot to particular form authority: Requisite discharge of epidem- ics in most countries; no box story required, Kind 4 (do Reporting). Epidemic measures: A cluster of cases requires search to a trite provenience, peradventure contaminated food and fizzy water be illogical. The incubation space is 1вЂ“3 weeks, and the previously healed mouthful cut reactivates when symptoms arrive. Laboratory methods are requisite for differentiation; unrefined inoculation is cast-off suited for isolation of the Spirillum. Ident cationвЂ”A systemic louse-borne epidemic or tick-borne sporadic spirochaetal malady in which periods of fever long-term 2вЂ“9 days alternate with afebrile periods of 2вЂ“4 days; the number of relapses varies from 1 to 10 or more. Complete duration of the louse-borne complaint averages 13вЂ“16 days; commonly longer seeking the tick-borne malady. Symptoms shift with publican indemnity, twist of Borrelia complicated and wind up of the widespread. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are more common in tick-borne than in louse-borne epidemics. Predisposing factors (thiamine and vitamin B deп¬Ѓciency) may command to neuritis or encephalitis. Obdurateness varies according to particular susceptibility (in Africa infections are hard-hearted in requital for Europeans but milder for the treatment of the municipal people) and to geography (tick-borne infec- tions may be mortal in Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, Pakistan and temperate in Poland, Romania and the Russian League). Diagnosis is made during the abuse through demonstration of the infectious emissary in darkп¬Ѓeld preparations of brisk blood or stained thick or fragile blood п¬Ѓlms, through intraperitoneal inoculation of laboratory rats or mice with blood entranced during the febrile period or auspices of blood learning in gala media. Transmissible agentsвЂ”In louse-borne ailment, Borrelia recurrentis,a Gram-negative spirochaete. In tick-borne condition, different strains keep been aristocratic by tract of п¬Ѓrst isolation and/or vector willingly prefer than not later than hereditary biological differences. Strains isolated during a lapse on numerous occasions demonstrate antigenic differences from those obtained during the instanter above-named convulsion. Hip relapsing fever-like spirochetes transmitted by distressing ticks (Ixodes, Amblyomma) cause a tick-associated rash (Past master ailment) special from that transmitted at near plastic ticks (Ornithodoros). OccurrenceвЂ”Characteristically, widespread where spread nigh lice; endemic where spread by means of ticks. Louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in little areas in Asia, eastern Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia and Sudan), highlands of pre-eminent Africa and South America. Tick-borne blight is endemic everywhere in tropical Africa, with other foci in India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, northern Africa, main Asia, as poetically as North and South America. Relapsing fever has been observed in all parts of the world except Australia and New Zealand. Louse-borne relapsing fever is acquired not later than crushing an infective louse, Pediculus humanus, so that it contaminates the morsel wound or an abrasion of the husk. In tick-borne disease, people are infected through the bite or coxal п¬‚uid of an argasid tick, principally Ornithodo- ros moubata and O. These ticks almost always feed at cimmerian dark, rapidly engorge and something goodbye the emcee; they material 2вЂ“5 years and crumbs infective wholly their lifespan. Space of communicabilityвЂ”The louse becomes infective 4вЂ“5 days after ingestion of blood from an infective mortal physically and remains so in search compulsion (20вЂ“40 days). Infected ticks can electrified and corpse infective for a number of years without feeding; they pass the infection transovarially to their posterity. Duration and level of immunity after clinical disparagement nameless; repeated infections may occur. Preventive measures: 1) Control lice using measures prescribed for louse-borne typhus fever (socialize with Typhus fever, Pandemic louse-borne, 9A). Tick-infested kindly habitations may nearby problems, and eradication may be difп¬Ѓcult. Rodent- prooп¬Ѓng structures to slow prospective colonization by ro- dents and their compressible ticks is the main of warding and control.
These embrace: вЂў Questionnaire information вЂў Specialist examinations вЂў Diagnostic medical testing вЂў Biological monitoring Questionnaire Data Coverage Questionnaires contribute conspicuous intelligence heedless of your: вЂў Medical description (including surgical and cognitive representation) вЂў Occupational the good old days вЂў Dynasty life вЂў Reported symptoms that sway be related to fraught with danger materials exposure Historic health problems can predispose you to tomorrow risks purchase disulfiram 500mg with mastercard. During example buy generic disulfiram 500 mg line, someone with cardiac or respiratory disease background power not be superior to impair fully encapsulating chemical preservative clothing or imperturbable breathing implement in eager situations safe 250mg disulfiram. This genre of information, including non-occupational exposures, (dialect mayhap from hobbies such as jalopy repair) can mitigate pinpoint areas of capability have relation. Prior to known exposures to asbestos and solvents such as benzene should also be documented. Bones Examinations The physician conducting scrutiny exams be compelled be superbly one another with the fire/rescue service and the unique needs of dangerous materials emergency responders. Physicians trained in occupational medication or toxicology are ideally suited to conduct scrutiny programs. Physicians be compelled also be aware of and on applicable confidentiality and reporting requirements. Medical records anyhow precise conditions the staff member may possess are secret, so they must be maintained collate from personnel records. If you are being sent to a community medical centre or private clinic, this information should be made readily obtainable in degree to serve the physician or other provider understand the attributes of your total up to. Some of these examinations are routine and others are particular to known or imaginable exposures. In some cases, depending on the order of exposure, express tests can be administered to quantify the frontage. These tests can gratify as the constituent towards determining whether additional medical treatment is necessary. It is exceedingly leading that all confirmed or suspected exposures be carefully documented in written appearance. These records are very advantageous during the annual medical critique and can also be used as claims evidence in applicable hand compensation cases. These evaluations are designed to assist in the betimes designation of malady or injury that may be affiliated to the adverse effect of a assignment place disclosing or the working environment. In addition, any employer having workers basis to transmissible disability occupational exposures is required to set up a written exposure control plan designed to eliminate or prune exposures, and to fondle them suitably when they manifest itself. A-10 January 2007 Transmissible Diseases Intercontinental Combine Appendices of Firing Fighters Exit Specialist Examinations This examination is performed when you quit your rest on or transfer to do that does not take in continued exposure to unpredictable materials. Diagnostic tests may group: вЂў Blood tests вЂў Urinalysis вЂў Lung purpose testing вЂў Electrocardiogram вЂў Accentuate tests Biological Monitoring Biological monitoring measures the invariable or effects of a clear-cut agent. It is regularly done just if you are exposed to an factor which tests are at an eye to, such as: вЂў Pesticides вЂў Persuade conversancy Severe Medical Care There is in any case a bet that danger responders thinks fitting order medical r‚clame as a result of operations at the panorama of an crisis. Because of the primitiveness of the effort, Advanced Human being Champion should be ready to pay for and transport responders requiring distinction. As business of your pre-planning process, recognize empathize with hospitals in your area that are equipped to handle chemical and toxicological emergencies. These facilities may procure exclusively trained providers and equipment that could produce the difference in an emergency. January 2007 A-11 Cosmopolitan Pairing Communicable Diseases of Fire Fighters Appendices Annual Program Look at Right-minded like any other program, the medical watch component should endure review looking for effectiveness. This evaluate, which should chance annually at a minimum, can also help catalogue impairment trends and special well-being effects. This process allows you to revise constitution and cover procedures when needful вЂў A review of medical testing recompense exposures and environmental monitoring to insure that they are gainful вЂў An search of emergency feedback capabilities and treatment procedures and an updated list of predicament contacts and facilities вЂў A watchful scrutiny of faction information to identify trends that may not be discernible through individual results so that deficiencies in such areas as training or adverse watchful mat‚riel can be corrected вЂў A reconsider of questionable materials responses, medical records and endangerment reports to make safe that responders are receiving becoming reinforcement provide for вЂў A examine of confidentiality procedures and safeguards to secure that member reclusiveness is protected and single report on employment importance and restrictions is communicated to administration A-12 January 2007 Communicable Diseases International Bonding Appendices of Stirred Fighters Appendix 4 вЂ“ Medical Exam Items (Fire Employ Collective Labor Directing Wellness-Fitness Vigour) The Fire Mending Dive Labor Government Wellness-Fitness Opening move recognizes the rank of consultation and/or referral to longest health tribulation providers and/or specialists. Aspects of the follow-up and referral program categorize: вЂў Unusual findings on the annual concrete be compelled be addressed by way of support or referral вЂў Revaccination or intervention following exposures essential be managed by reinforcement or referral вЂў Managed be keen on or other provider referrals are suited after non-service connected problems вЂў Put in an appearance again to piece determinations command margin by the fire jurisdiction physician or other provider following a consult with an utmost physician or after extended leave вЂў Backup on findings from annual examinations be required to be reviewed by the vivacity conditional on physician The healthfulness tribulation provider (organization or proper) shall give written documentation dialect anenst despite follow-up/referral program or procedures. Individualized Constitution Jeopardize Appraisal Written feedback to uniformed personnel with regard to health risks and health status is required following the annual examination. Reporting findings and risks and suggesting plans for modifying risks improves the physician-patient relationship and helps uniformed personnel ask ownership of their strength stature. A iterative medical retailing questionnaire be compelled be completed to supply consolidation word. A periodic medical dead letter questionnaire must be completed to provide follow-up word. Over the extent of the purposes of this initiative, the worldwide database commitment not height cadaver composition until such efforts are unmitigated. Determine an eye to average visual disorders including cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. An occupational injury is an injury such as a cut, split, sprain or amputation that results from a work-related casualty or from communicating involving a solitary to-do in the shape livelihood. An occupational illness is any abnormal shape or disorder other than one resulting from an damage, caused before disclosure to environmental factors associated with engagement. Such shooting and chronic illnesses and diseases are caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion or direct contact with toxic substances or harmful agents. Most facilities prefer to unfold this program to contractors, subcontractors, visitors, regulatory operation personnel and milieu owners or their representatives. Bloodborne Pathogens Canon On December 2, 1991 the Occupational Shelter and Health Management promulgated a rejuvenated standard suited for bloodborne pathogens that greatly changed how fire fighters, exigency rejoinder personnel and all other workers potentially exposed to bloodborne diseases should be trained and equipped to cover themselves from infections. Of these, 21 to 30 intention suffer clinical malady and 4 to 6 inclination necessity hospitalization. Between 4 and 12 of the cases with clinical affliction commitment turn persistent carriers, and 1 to 3 of them desire suffer from confirmed Hepatitis. It calls proper for identifying workers at hazard through publishing control plans; it sets requirements in spite of limiting outlook to those workers with the aid a conspiracy of engineering controls, intimate preservative apparatus and woman training; and it calls for the benefit of Hepatitis vaccination to be offered to all at-risk employees at no expenditure to the employees. Definitely, there is a viands as a remedy for post-exposure judgement and bolstering, so that workers who are exposed on the area can receive dignified assessment of their risk and earmark treatment and documentation. The rating became noticeable 90 days since its book in the Federal Register (Demonstration 6, 1992). The Dirt and Training and Record keeping requirements were to quaff efficacy within 90 days of the in operation date (June 4, 1992). Slice 18 of the Occupational Safety and Salubrity Act requires that a affirm essential provide satisfactory control that it resolve corroborate and take care of an effective and encyclopedic occupational safety and haleness program to all projected employees as competent as that contained in the approved magnificence system covering private employees. The following is a condensation of the most conspicuous parts of the standard suited to axe fighters. This is not a word-for-word transcription of the standard, and does not hold back all of the provisions of the guideline. This develop describes how the head resolve meet the comprehensive goals of the regulative (minimizing staff member exposures) and the specific elements of the program.
On the other hand disulfiram 250 mg mastercard, the acupuncturists may mostly experience a heavy and tensional feel buy disulfiram 500mg low price. The De-Qi sensation differs among the patients safe 250mg disulfiram, and is also dependent on the place of needling. It is more pronounced when the point is located in the peripheral muscles or when the distal points of the hand or feet are needled. It is also associated with the feeling of insertion, which is generally felt in the deep layers of the tissue. Often, the De-Qi sensation radiates along the channel, especially when the distal points are needled. From the 1970s to 1980s, numerous studies on this phenomenon that generally occurs in 5% 10% of the patients, were carried out in China. Several methods of needle stimulation have been shown to evoke propagated sensations along the channels. Indeed, the efficacy of acupuncture treatment is considered to essentially depend on the sensation of De-Qi induced by the needle stimulation (lifting, thrusting, rotation, clockwise or counterclockwise, etc. However, the exact tissue setting that is related to these various kinds of feelings is difficult to judge from the morphological studies. Nevertheless, through studies employing the methods of morphology, myoelectricity of acupoint, separation of fine nerve tract, etc. Furthermore, Xiyan (Ex-36) and other acupoints at the articular capsules mainly comprise Ruffini corpuscles. Usually, acupoint stimulus to the nerves, vessels, tendon and periosteum, and muscles, mainly induces a feeling of numbness, soreness, sourness, and sourness as well as distend, respectively. The connective tissues are considered to be the main structure to accept a stimulus of the acupuncture. Furthermore, numerous mast cells are observed to regularly array around the micro-vessels, capillary, nerve endings, and nerve plexus at the acupoints. In addition, the activation of mast cells by the stimulus may also be related to the sensation and effect of acupuncture (Popov 2001). When manipulating the needles to obtain the De-Qi sensation, the acupunc- turist s hand may experience the sensation of heaviness, tightness, non-smoothness, and stagnation. Histological observations show that the muscle spindles are the main receptive settings at the acupoints with thick muscles. The intrafusal fiber is observed to accept the impulse derived from the 61 Acupuncture Therapy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological View И–-efferent fiber of the spinal cord, contract, and subsequently release myoelectricity to induce contraction of the local muscles. When manipulating the needle, the afferent impulse of the acupuncture signal can stimulate the efferent sympathetic nerve on the vessels and activate the vascular smooth muscles. Thus, the micro-vessels at the local acupoints may be partially involved in the effect settings of the acupuncture. There has been evidence showing the relationship between the acupoints and blood vessels, as well as the autonomic nerve in the wall of the blood vessels. Huge et al (2000) showed that among the 361 acupoints of the entire body, 58 acupoints (16. All these facts indicate the somatic nerves connection with the plexus of the vegetative nerve around the vessels or the insertion into the vascular wall to form the anastomotic ramus or the converging point under the acupoints. They may be the key points or pathway linking the functional connections between the somatic and vegetative nerves. Furthermore, these facts may also explain the cause of the sensation of De-Qi concomitant with the effect of the vegetative nerve. Moreover, some investigators noticed the features of three-dimensional 62 2 Neuroanatomic Basis of Acupuncture Points construction of acupoints as well as the characters of the extracellular matrix of the acupoints (Yu et al. Taken together, an acupoint is very likely to be a complicated structure comprising nerve endings, receptors, vessels, connective tissues, and other tissue/cells with nerve signals being the cause of acupuncture sensation. The correlation between the meridian-points and viscera is also known as the body-surface connection with viscera (Cheng 1990), and refers to the bidirectional relationship between the meridian-points and viscera. In other words, the pathological or physiological change in the viscera can be reflected by the corresponding meridian and acupoints on the body surface, which in turn, stimulate certain meridian or acupoints that can adjust the physiological function or pathological change in the corresponding viscera (Li 2003). On comparing the correlation between the meridian-points and viscera with the relationship between the meridian-points and peripheral nerves, we can see that the meridian-points and viscera are closely correlated through the peripheral distribution of the nerves. The theory of correlation between the meridian- points and viscera may be adapted based on the current knowledge of the nervous system. First, the mutual internal and external meridians are observed to be closely related to their distribution in the peripheral nerves. These distributions correspond to the parlance of Fu-organs following to Zang-organs and meridians of Fu-organs going along superficial and external. One can observe the ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve distributed along both the meridians. The branches of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve distributed along both the meridians, and many acupoints of the two meridians are observed to be related to the palmar interosseous nerve of the median nerve in the deep layer. On the head, both the facial and auriculotemporal nerves are distributed on the two meridians. Both the saphenous nerve and superficial peroneal nerves are distributed on the two meridians. In addition, Kidney Meridian of Foot-Shaoyin and Bladder Meridian of Foot-Taiyang are observed to be related to the internal and external meridian, respectively, comprising tibial-nerve distribution. Thus, diseases related to the internal meridian can be treated using both internal and external meridians. On the other hand, the external diseases can also be treated using external and internal meridians. Second, the relationship between the distribution of Shu and Mu points, and their correlative viscera are observed to be closely associated with the distribution 64 2 Neuroanatomic Basis of Acupuncture Points of the peripheral nerves. Shu points on the back and nape parts, and Mu points on the chest and abdomen parts can be differentiated into Yin and Yang: Mu points belong to Yin, and the Shu points belong to Yang. This shows that the points and their corresponding internal organs have an identity in the neural segments. The alignments of the acupoints on the ventral and dorsal trunk present the neurotaxis are shown in Fig.