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To allow for seasonal variation purchase 100 mcg proventil with mastercard asthma or anxiety, sampling data for surface waters and groundwater subject to surface water contamination should be available for at least one year order proventil 100 mcg without prescription asthmatic bronchitis attack. Groundwater wells/boreholes in limestone areas are more susceptible to seasonal variation due to contamination from the surface. Slow sand filtration due to their ineffectiveness at reducing the smaller particulate organic matter (i. On the other hand, well operated coagulation based treatment processes are effective at removing particulate matter and reducing dissolved organic carbon. This inorganic fouling is a complex problem related principally but not only to hardness and iron levels in the water, resulting in the accumulation of coatings on quartz sleeves. Hard waters have greater fouling Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection potential particularly from compounds for which solubility decreases with increasing temperature e. Cleaning frequency varies in accordance with the chemistry of the water and the lamp type. The combination of chemical residual and contact time, defined by the Ct value, is an operational surrogate for disinfection efficacy. Common to these standards is the requirement to validate performance using biodosimetry. These factors are specific to the target pathogen and the target inactivation of that pathogen. This is essentially feedback control, with built in allowance for ageing of the lamps over time. A single set point is simpler to implement, but a variable set point is more energy efficient as it can be reduced at low flow (with longer contact time in the reactor). This approach requires a greater complexity, but offers more flexibility in maintaining an appropriate targeted dose in an energy efficient way. Lamps should be replaced when burn time reaches the limit recommended by the supplier. Further practical guidance on the uses and relative merits of both dose monitoring approaches in operation is included in Appendix 2. Cleaning systems are proprietary, and may include chemical and physical mechanisms or a combination of the two, and can be on-line or off-line. Excessive solarization is an indication that a sleeve is close to the end of its useful service life. There is a possibility of compromised performance for a period of time during start up (e. Ultra-violet disinfection as part of a multi-barrier solution for control of Cryptosporidium in drinking water – with case study reference to implemented disinfection solutions in Galway City. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Ultraviolet Technologies, Vienna, Austria, July 9-11. This is consistent with the Drinking Water Safety Plan approach for water supply risk management, outlined below. They were originally outlined in rd the 3 Edition of Guidelines to Drinking Water Quality published by the World Health Organisation in 2004, which states that “The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of a drinking-water supply is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach that encompasses all steps in water supply from catchment to consumer”. By knowing what is in the catchment, it is possible to understand the source water for a works and target treatment effectively. Network operations and customer education will help to prevent deterioration of the delivered water. Identify all the hazards and hazardous events that can affect the safety of a water supply from the catchment, through treatment and distribution to the customers tap. Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Keep accurate records for audit and justification of outcomes. A common way of ranking risk is through a scoring system which categorises the likelihood and consequence separately, and combining these in a frequency/consequence matrix, Table 8. Alkalinity: The quantitative capacity of water to neutralize an acid; that is, the measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a significant change in pH. This capacity is caused by the amount of bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxide compounds present in the water Alkalinity is not the same as pH because water does not have to be strongly basic (high pH) to have high alkalinity. A flat board or plate, wall, deflector, guide or similar device constructed or placed in flowing water to cause more uniform flow velocities, to absorb energy, and to divert, guide, or agitate water. Barrier: A treatment or disinfection process that constitutes an impediment to the transmission of waterborne pathogenic microorganisms or other contaminants to humans in drinking water. The term barrier encompasses treatment and disinfection processes that either remove or inactivate such microorganisms and contaminants.

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A cross-national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia buy proventil 100mcg low cost asthma symptoms early pregnancy. Collective regulation of adolescent misbehavior validation results from eighty Chicago neighborhoods proventil 100 mcg lowest price asthma x5. Violent victimization and offending: Individual-, situational-, and community-level risk factors. Effectiveness of culturally focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: Two-year follow-up results. Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Identifying two potential mechanisms for changes in alcohol use among college-attending and non-college- attending emerging adults. Child maltreatment, parent alcohol-and drug-related problems, polydrug problems, and parenting practices: A test of gender differences and four theoretical perspectives. Prosocial involvement and antisocial peer afliations as predictors of behavior problems in urban adolescents: Main effects and moderating effects. Cleaning up their act: The effects of marriage and cohabitation on licit and illicit drug use. The Seattle Social Development Project: Effects of the frst four years on protective factors and problem behaviors. Screening, behavioral counseling, and referral in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. Preventive interventions addressing underage drinking: State of the evidence and steps toward public health impact. Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on children: follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in frst and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood. The evaluation of two frst-grade preventive interventions on childhood aggression and adolescent marijuana use: A latent transition longitudinal mixture model. Adolescent substance use outcomes in the Raising Healthy Children project: A two-part latent growth curve analysis. Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach. Early results from a school alcohol harm minimization study: The School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project. Benefts of universal intervention effects on a youth protective shield 10 years after baseline. Effects of family risk factors on dosage and efcacy of a family-centered preventive intervention for rural African Americans. Universal intervention effects on substance use among young adults mediated by delayed adolescent substance initiation. Long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on methamphetamine use among adolescents. Longitudinal effects of universal preventive intervention on prescription drug misuse: Three randomized controlled trials with late adolescents and young adults. Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: Immediate and 1-year outcomes. Substance use and delinquency among middle school girls in foster care: A three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Brief, personality-targeted coping skills interventions and survival as a non–drug user over a 2-year period during adolescence. Long-term effects of a personality- targeted intervention to reduce alcohol use in adolescents. Preventing substance use among adolescent girls: 1-year outcomes of a computerized, mother–daughter program. Reducing the risks of alcohol use among urban youth: Three-year effects of a computer-based intervention with and without parent involvement. Brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on the progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis order proventil 100mcg without prescription asthma breathing exercises. Systematic review: blood pressure target in chronic kidney disease and proteinuria as an effect modifer safe 100 mcg proventil asthma definition 2-dimensional shapes. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive and Standard Blood Pressure Targets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Blood pressure targets in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus/ impaired fasting glucose: observations from traditional and bayesian random-effects meta-analyses of randomized trials. Tight versus standard blood pressure control in patients with hypertension with and without cardiovascular disease. National Heart Foundation of Australia Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults 2016 69 161. Early intravenous then oral metoprolol in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Clinical outcomes with beta-blockers for myocardial infarction: a meta- analysis of randomized trials. Beta blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. Reducing risk in heart disease – An expert guide to clinical practice for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Benefts of beta blockers in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: network meta-analysis. Antihypertensive treatment and development of heart failure in hypertension: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of studies in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. Beta-blocker treatment before angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in newly diagnosed heart failure. The Hong Kong diastolic heart failure study: a randomised controlled trial of diuretics, irbesartan and ramipril on quality of life, exercise capacity, left ventricular global and regional function in heart failure with a normal ejection fraction. Effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on mortality and hospitalization in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis. Impact of ramipril in patients with evidence of clinical or subclinical peripheral arterial disease. Cardiovascular outcome in white-coat versus sustained mild hypertension: a 10-year follow-up study. Cardiovascular outcome in treated hypertensive patients with responder, masked, false resistant, and true resistant hypertension. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus: treatment implications for clinical practice. Long-term risk of mortality associated with selective and combined elevation in offce, home, and ambulatory blood pressure. Prognostic value of white-coat and masked hypertension diagnosed by ambulatory monitoring in initially untreated subjects: an updated meta analysis. Untreated Masked Hypertension and Subclinical Cardiac Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Response to antihypertensive therapy in older patients with sustained and nonsustained systolic hypertension. Incidence of cardiovascular events in white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension versus true normotension: a meta-analysis. Medical Research Council trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. Mortality and morbidity results from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly trial. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 study.

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They work by slowing the heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels so the heart doesn’t have to work as hard to pump blood cheap proventil 100mcg with amex asthma symptoms but not asthma. If you stop a beta blocker suddenly cheap 100 mcg proventil with amex asthmatic bronchitis 15, you can get chest pain, an irregular heartbeat, or a heart attack. Examples carvedilol metoprolol Interactions Food: Take carvedilol with food to decrease the chance it will lower your blood pressure too much. Take carvedilol extended release capsules in the morning with food; don’t crush, chew, or divide the capsule. Diuretics Sometimes called “water pills,” diuretics help remove water, sodium, and chloride from the body. Diuretics reduce sodium and the swelling and excess fuid caused by some medical problems such as heart or liver disease. Examples bumetanide furosemide hydrochlorothiazide 11 metolazone triamterene triamterene + hydrochlorothiazide Interactions Food: Take your diuretic with food if it upsets your stomach. Some diuretics cause loss of the minerals potassium, calcium, and magnesium from the body. Other diuretics, like triamterene (not with hydrochlorothiazide), lower the kidneys’ ability to remove potassium, which can cause high levels of potassium in the blood stream (hyperkalemia). Too much potassium can be harmful and can cause an irregular or rapid beating of the heart. When you use diuretics that can increase potassium in your body, avoid eating large amounts of foods high in potassium, such as bananas, oranges, and green leafy vegetables, and salt substitutes that contain potassium. Tell your doctor if you are taking salt substitutes with potassium or potassium supplements because they can add to the amount of potassium in your body. Example digoxin 12 Interactions Food: Take digoxin one hour before or two hours after eating food. Try to take it at the same time(s) every day and carefully follow the label and directions from your doctor. Foods high in fber may decrease the digoxin in your body, so take digoxin at least two hours before or two hours after eating foods high in fber (such as bran). John’s wort since they may decrease the amount and action of digoxin in your body. Avoid taking digoxin with black licorice (which contains the glycyrrhizin used in some candies, cakes and other sweets). Examples atorvastatin fluvastatin lovastatin 13 pravastatin simvastatin rosuvastatin Interactions Food: You can take most statins on a full or empty stomach. Don’t drink more than one quart of grapefruit juice a day if you are taking atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin. Large amounts of grapefruit juice can raise the levels of those statins in your body and increase the chance of side effects. They work by relaxing the blood vessels to the heart, which improves the blood and oxygen fow to the heart. Examples isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate nitroglycerin Interactions Food: You can take all forms of nitrates on a full or empty stomach. Alcohol may 14 add to the blood vessel-relaxing effect of nitrates and lead to a dangerously low blood pressure. Vitamin K Agonists/ Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are also called “blood thinners. Anticoagulants are used to treat people with certain types of irregular heartbeat, people with prosthetic (replacement or mechanical) heart valves, and people who have had a heart attack. Anticoagulants also treat blood clots that have formed in the veins of the legs or lungs. Example warfarin Interactions Food: You can take warfarin on a full or empty stomach. Eat a normal balanced diet with a steady amount of leafy green vegetables, and talk to your doctor before making changes in your diet. Foods high in vitamin K include broccoli, cabbage, collard greens, spinach, kale, turnip greens, and brussel sprouts. Avoid cranberry juice or cranberry products while using anticoagulants because they can change the effects of warfarin.

Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Gently Shake for 2–3 Gently Shake for 2–3 Gently Shake for 2–3 minutes to ensure minutes to ensure minutes to ensure dissolution dissolution dissolution into a clear solution cheap 100 mcg proventil with mastercard asthma definition 7 sacraments. Withdraw the required amount required amount required amount of the solution of the solution and of the solution and and inject slowly inject slowly at a inject slowly at a rate at a rate of 3-4ml rate of 3-4ml per of 3-4ml per minute cheap 100 mcg proventil overnight delivery definition of asthma attack. It should always be given by slow rate-controlled infusion, never by bolus intravenous injection. The dose is Quinine Hydrochloride salt at 10mg per kg body weight (maximum dose 600mg) 8 hourly in 5-10ml/kg of dextrose saline or in 5% dextrose over 4-8 hours. Use the appropriate Quinine dilution for adults or children, as described above in Section 4. Cinchonism is mild when Quinine is used in the recommended doses and subsides spontaneously when administration of the drug ends. The most serious frequent nd adverse drug reaction for injectable Quinine is hypoglycaemia, particularly in the 2 rd and 3 trimesters of pregnancy. In most other respects, however, the treatment of severe/complicated malaria in pregnancy shall be the same as the treatment of severe/complicated malaria for the general population. Supportive care may include the following: Ÿ Blood Transfusion for severe anaemia. Exclude other treatable causes of coma (such as hyperglycaemia, and bacterial meningitis). If injectable glucose is not available, give glucose solutions through nasogastric tube (glucose powder or sugar water). If the child is not able to breastfeed but is able to swallow: Give expressed breast milk, or if not available, consider giving sugar water. If the child is not able to swallow, give 50ml of expressed breast milk or sugar solution must be given by nasogastric tube. Note: The routine administration of bolus fluid infusion for resuscitation is contraindicated. For life- threatening hypoxaemia, consider intubation with mechanical ventilation. Severe Anaemia: Diagnosed in patients with Hb <5g/dl, or packed cell volume <15%; and/or in anaemic patient with signs of heart failure (dyspnoea, enlarged liver, gallop rhythm). Transfuse with 10ml per kg body weight packed cells or 20ml per kg of whole blood as appropriate. Acute Renal Failure: Exclude dehydration, maintain strict fluid balance, monitor fluid input and urine output (urine output: 25-30ml/hour). Avoid drugs that increase the risk of gastro-intestinal bleeding: Ÿ Corticosteroids. Vital Signs: blood pressure, body temperature, pulse, respiratory rate four (4) hourly. While patient is hospitalised, it is recommended to repeat at least six (6) hourly. Check for neurological sequelae (deficit): Assess patient for possible neurological sequelae (deficit) of the disease or the treatment. This is important in children, since it is likely that 10% of them may develop neurological sequelae after they recover from cerebral malaria. Perform follow-up laboratory tests on the 7 and 14 days: Ÿ Thick and thin blood films Ÿ Haematocrit Ÿ Haemoglobin c) ForAdults and Children Recovering from SevereAnaemia: Ÿ Give iron and folic acid for two months with regular follow-up Ÿ If child has sickle cell disease, give folic acid only, unless laboratory findings indicate the need for iron supplementation. It is delivered through trained community members living as close as possible to where the children under-five years live. Home Management of malaria allows for coverage of the health services for malaria to extend beyond the reach of health facilities. Supportive care should also be provided, including tepid sponging and administration of paracetamol. The following treatment guidelines apply: Ÿ For dosing regimens of Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Paracetamol, refer to Sections 3.

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Ele- ders in the National Comorbidity Survey Repli- Christensen T purchase 100mcg proventil with amex asthma pathophysiology, Clauson P discount 100mcg proventil otc asthma flare up, Gonder-Frederick L. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:348–358 A critical review of the literature on fear of hy- medicine use, and risk of developing diabetes 90. Martyn-Nemeth P, Quinn L, Hacker E, Park H, poglycemia in diabetes: implications for diabe- during the DiabetesPreventionProgram. Injection related anxiety in insulin-treated di- pression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999;46:239–246 Diabetes Care 2001;24:1069–1078 for disordered eating in youth with type 1 di- 71. Psychosom Med 2003;65:376–383 21:45–57 tic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 82. Available from http:// orative care for patients with depression and diabetes among persons with schizophrenia and psychiatryonline. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008; 2016 Eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 di- 258:129–136 73. As- implications of anxiety in diabetes: a critical review World J Diabetes 2015;6:517–526 sessment of independent effect of olanzapine of the evidence base. Interventions that restore awareness eating disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in a nested case-control study. Patients and care providers should focus together on how to opti- mize lifestyle from the time of the initial comprehensive medical evaluation, throughout all subsequent evaluations and follow-up, and during the assessment of complications and management of comorbid conditions in order to enhance diabetes care. B c Effective self-management and improved clinical outcomes, health status, and quality of life are key goals of diabetes self-management education and support that should be measured and monitored as part of routine care. C c Diabetes self-management education and support should be patient centered, respectful, and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and should help guide clinical decisions. A c Diabetes self-management education and support programs have the neces- sary elements in their curricula to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education and support programs should therefore be able to tailor their content when prevention of diabetes is the desired goal. B c Because diabetes self-management education and support can improve out- comes and reduce costs B, diabetes self-management education and support should be adequately reimbursed by third-party payers. Monitor patient performance of self- management behaviors as well as psychosocial factors impacting the person’s Suggested citation: American Diabetes Associa- self-management. More infor- of diabetes as they face new challenges and as advances in treatment become mationis available at http://www. Despite these bene- quality foods with less focus on specific should be evaluated by the medical care fits, reports indicate that only 5–7% of nutrients. Annually for assessment of education, other identified barriers such as logistical tion recommendations. To promote and support healthful eat- the tools to make informed self-management nized by the American Diabetes Associa- ing patterns, emphasizing a variety of decisions (4). To address individual nutrition needs Evidence for the Benefits always be reimbursed. To maintain the pleasure of eating by coping (13,14), and reduced health care following a food plan. Individual and group development of an individualized eating Body weight management is important approaches are effective (11,24). All individuals with diabe- for overweight and obese people with ing evidence is pointing to the benefitof tes should receive individualized medi- type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Patients who participate in about nutrition therapy principles for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes”). E Energy balance c Modest weight loss achievable by the combination of reduction of calorie intake and A lifestyle modification benefits overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes and also those with prediabetes. Eating patterns and macronutrient c As there is no single ideal dietary distribution of calories among carbohydrates, fats, E distribution and proteins for people with diabetes, macronutrient distribution should be individualized while keeping total calorie and metabolic goals in mind. Therefore, carbohydrate sources high in protein should not be used to treat or prevent hypoglycemia. A Micronutrients and herbal supplements c There is no clear evidence that dietary supplementation with vitamins, minerals, C herbs, or spices can improve outcomes in people with diabetes who do not have underlying deficiencies, and there may be safety concerns regarding the long-term use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamins E and C and carotene. Alcohol c Adults with diabetes who drink alcohol should do so in moderation (no more than C one drink per day for adult women and no more than two drinks per day for adult men).

Menu selection generic 100 mcg proventil with mastercard asthma definition signs symptoms, glycaemic Toolkits/Glycemic_Control/Web/Quality___ bidity in diabetic patients undergoing cardiac control and satisfaction with standard and pa- Innovation/Implementation_Toolkit/Glycemic/ surgery with a combined intravenous and sub- tient-controlled consistent carbohydrate meal Clinical_Tools/Clinical_Tools purchase proventil 100mcg mastercard asthma symptoms 9 weeks. Accessed cutaneous insulin glucose management strat- plans in hospitalised patients with diabetes. Conversion from enteral nutrition in managing patients with di- group of the American Diabetes Association intravenous insulin to subcutaneous insulin af- abetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 2013; ter cardiovascular surgery: transition to target 5142–5152 36:1384–1395 study. Endocr Pract Diabetes 2014;38:126–133 (54 mg/dL) should be reported in clinical trials: a 2015;21:54–58 43. Inpatient hy- regular insulin in hospitalized patients with hy- tesAssociationandtheEuropeanAssociationfor perglycemia management: a practical review perglycemia during enteral nutrition therapy. Safety and efficacy of sitagliptin therapy intensive care patient: featuring subcutane- glucose control in critically ill patients. Endocr Pract 2011;17: icine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes: 249–260 Med 2009;360:1283–1297 17. Man- Care 2013;36:3430–3435 agement of diabetes and hyperglycemia in Enhancing insulin-use safety in hospitals: prac- 31. Diabetes Spectr 2014;27: Point-of-Care Use: Guidance for Industry and Food of basal-bolus insulin in patients receiving 180–188 and Drug Administration Staff [Internet], 2016. Is incretin- high-dose steroids for hyper-cyclophospha- Available from http://www. Accessed has proven itself and is considered the mainstay 2014;16:874–879 21 November 2016 of treatment. Continuous glu- 2117 glucose control in the diabetic or nondiabetic cose monitoring in insulin-treated patients in 34. Diabetes Care 2013;36:2169–2174 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial in Latin drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts/ucm507785 51. Impact experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic regimensintype2diabetes:asystematicreview of a hypoglycemia reduction bundle and a ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar care. Adverse events after hospital discharge Multiple hospitalizations for patients with dia- tinuous intravenous regular insulin for the [article online], 2010. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1421–1426 treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacido- psnet. Med Clin diabetes: effect of a dedicated diabetes treat- bicarbonate therapy in severely acidotic dia- North Am 2015;99:351–377 ment unit. Available from e000104 from the hospital to home for patients with di- http://www. Diabetes Care 2014;37:2864–2883 S128 Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 American Diabetes Association 15. People living with diabetes should not have to face additional discrimination due to diabetes. Care of Young Children With Diabetes in the Child Care Setting (2) First publication: 2014 Very young children (aged ,6 years) with diabetes have legal protections and can be safely cared for by child care providers with appropriate training, access to resources, and a system of communication with parents and the child’s diabetes provider. Diabetes and Driving (3) First publication: 2012 Peoplewithdiabeteswhowishtooperatemotorvehiclesaresubjecttoagreatvarietyof licensing requirements applied by both state and federal jurisdictions, which may lead to loss of employment or significant restrictions on a person’s license. Presence of a medical condition that can lead to significantly impaired consciousness or cognition may lead to drivers being evaluated for fitness to drive. People with diabetes should be individually assessed by a health care professional knowledgeable in diabetes if license restrictions are being considered, and patients should be counseled about detecting and avoiding hypoglycemia while driving. Employment decisions Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not should never bebased on generalizationsorstereotypesregardingtheeffectsof diabetes. More infor- When questions arise about the medicalfitness of a person with diabetes for a particular mationisavailableathttp://www. Diabetes Care Diabetes Management in Correctional agement in Correctional Institutions” 2014;37:2834–2842 Institutions (5) (http://care. Diabe- tes, correctional institutions should position statement of the American Diabetes tes Care 2014;37(Suppl. None None Novo Nordisk, Johns Hopkins School Diabetes Care (Editorial Board) of Medicine Continuing Medical Education A. None None None None S132 Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 Index A1C.