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These should be used in conjunction with a tion in patients with cardiac failure who have chronic diuretic if there is any evidence of peripheral oedema cheap lioresal 25mg visa spasms 1983 youtube. There is an acute accumulation of fluid inhibitors buy generic lioresal 10 mg on line spasms left side, β-blockers and diuretics in patients who in the alveoli. They should be started at low dose and Patients develop acute severe dysnoea at rest, hypox- increased gradually. There may be wheeze and cough pro- r low-dose spironolactone, which improves progno- ductive of frothy pink sputum. On auscultation crepitations may be itoring of renal function and potassium levels. In acute pul- can aggravate myocardial ischaemia and cause further monary oedema there may be ‘bat wing’ or ground reductionincardiac output. Aminophylline infusion can be considered if there is r Cardiac inotropes are usually necessary to maintain bronchoconstriction. If patient is hypertensive hydralazine or diazoxide (ar- r Any cardiac arrhythmia should be corrected and terial dilators) can be used to reduce cardiac afterload angioplasty considered in patients with cardiogenic and hence increase stroke volume. Any underlying problem such as arrhythmia should r Intra-aortic balloon pumping may be instituted but it be corrected. Severe circulatory failure resulting from a low cardiac output usually characterised by severe hypotension. Aetiology This is an extreme type of acute cardiac failure the most common cause of which is myocardial infarction. Pathophysiology Cardiogenic shock is severe heart failure despite an ad- equate or elevated central venous pressure, distinguish- Incidence ing it from hypovolaemic or septic shock. Hypotension Commonest cause of pulmonary hypertensive heart dis- may result in a reduction in coronary blood flow, which ease. Chapter 2: Disorders of pericardium, myocardium and endocardium 65 Sex r Atrial fibrillation is a common complication and M > F should be treated appropriately. This is related to the underlying lung pathology and ex- tent of respiratory failure. Acute pericarditis Definition Pathophysiology Acute pericarditis is an acute inflammation of the peri- Hypoxia is a potent cause of pulmonary arterial vaso- cardial sac. With Aetiology time there is compromise of right ventricular function Multiple aetiologies but common causes are as follows: r Myocardial infarction: 20% of patients develop acute and development of right ventricular failure, often with tricuspid regurgitation. Dressler’s syndrome is an immune- Pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and mediated pericarditis occurring between 1 month and the chest disease together produce the clinical picture. Pathophysiology During acute pericarditis the pericardium is inflamed Management and covered in fibrin causing a loss of smoothness and r Heart failure should be treated and the underlying an audible friction rub on auscultation. Sharp substernal pain with radiation to the neck and r Long-termoxygentherapyhasbeenshowntoimprove shouldersandsometimestheback. Characteristicallythe prognosis in hypoxic chronic obstructive airways dis- pain is relieved by sitting forward and made worse by ly- ease but must be maintained for >18 hours per day. A pericardial 66 Chapter 2: Cardiovascular system friction rub is pathognomonic but may be transient, best Aetiology heard at the left sternal edge accentuated by leaning for- Haemopericardium, tuberculous pericarditis and acute ward and held expiration. Complications Pericarditis is often complicated by pericardial effusion Pathophysiology and occasionally tamponade. Where there is an associ- Chronicinflammation,orhealingafteracutepericarditis atedmyocarditis,featuresofheartfailuremaybepresent. This surrounds and constricts the ventricles Macroscopy/microscopy such that the heart cannot fill properly, hence causing a An acute inflammatory reaction with both pericardial reductionincardiac output. Auscultation reveals soft S1 and S2 echocardiogram, viral titres and blood cultures. Investigations r Chest X-ray is frequently normal but may show a rel- Management atively small heart. There may be a shell of calcified Analgesia and anti-inflammatory treatment with aspirin pericardium particularly on the lateral film. However, it may be normal even in the pres- Most cases of acute pericarditis, particularly of viral ori- ence of the disease. Constrictive pericarditis Definition Management Acondition in which reduced elasticity of the peri- Medical intervention is of little value except for digoxin cardium results in poor cardiac output. The treatment of choice is Chapter 2: Disorders of pericardium, myocardium and endocardium 67 surgical removal of a substantial proportion of the peri- ment, but follow-up observation is mandatory to iden- cardium (pericardectomy).

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Aluminium compounds have a wide variety of uses lioresal 25 mg with amex muscle relaxant back pain over counter, including production of pharmaceuticals and food additives cheap lioresal 10mg without prescription spasms after hemorrhoidectomy. A variety of complexes may be formed with the ligands present in biological systems and/or in foods. The complexes between ligands and aluminium have different physicochemical properties, such as solubility in aqueous medium, stability at different pH, electric charge etc. This can greatly influence the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic profile of aluminium. Although aluminium is toxic to humans, animals and plants, its biochemistry has been little studied and is poorly understood (Gomez et al. Because of the lack of quantitative information, it is not easy to assess the biological relevance and possible biological role of such interactions. The Al3+ interacts with a large number of proteins, glycoproteins and carbohydrates, but very little is known about the chemistry, binding strength and binding mode of these complexes. The most likely binding sites of A1(H20)63+ in bio systems are oxygen donors, and especially negatively charged oxygen donors. Biomolecules containing such functions may be involved in the uptake and transport processes of Al3+ (Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials on a request from European Commission on Safety of aluminium from dietary intake, 2008). Aluminium – Non-Essential Activator of Pepsin: Kinetics and Thermodynamics 277 Recently it has been shown that Al3+ ions increase pepsin activity (Krejpcio & Wojciak 2002). Gel electrophoresis is a broad subject encompassing many different techniques and can provide information about the molecular weights and charges of proteins, the subunit structures of proteins and a purity of a particular protein preparation. The most common use of gel electrophoresis is the qualitative analysis of complex mixtures of proteins. Microanalytical methods are sensitive, linear image analysis system make gel electrophoresis useful for quantitative and preparative purposes as well. The technique provides the highest resolution of all methods available for separating proteins. Polypeptides differing in molecular weights by as little as a few hundreds of Daltons and proteins differing less than 0. The method provides an easy way to estimate the number of polypeptides in a sample and thus assess the complexity of the sample or the purity of a preparation. In those situations where it is desirable to maintain biological activity, non-denaturing systems must be employed. Non-denaturing systems also give information about the charge isomers of proteins. The subject of electrophoresis deals with the controlled motion of charged particles in electrical fields. Since proteins are charged molecules, they migrate under the influence of electrical fields. From the point of view of electrophoresis, the two most important physical properties of proteins are their electrophoretic mobility and charge and its isoelectric points. The electrophoretic mobility depends on its charge, size, and shape, and it is very different in gels than in free solution. Pepsin has been studied by electrophoresis since its isolation from different sources (Herriot 1940, Porcellii, 1968, Cunningham 1970, Cann 1962, Varilova 2005). In our previous studies, the in vitro influence of different concentrations of Al3+ ions, physiological and toxic ones, on pepsin activity was investigated. Kinetic studies were undertaken to determine the nature of the enzyme modulation (type and mechanism) by investigated metal ion. The mechanism of Al3+ ions on pepsin activity evaluated from kinetic studies and was classified as a case of non-essential activation with partial non- competitive character (Pavelkic et al. The present paper summarizes the current knowledge of activating and stabilizing effect of Al3+ ions on gastrointestinal fluids, especially on main gastrointestinal enzyme - pepsin. Therefore, there is a lack of information about thermal stability of pepsin in a presence of Al3+ ions. As the binding mechanism of Al3+ ions on pepsin is not still clear the objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro conditions the influence of different concentrations of 278 Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design Al3+ ions, physiological and toxic ones, on pepsin conformational stability during the process of thermal unfolding, with a purpose of better understanding of pepsin/aluminium interaction. The effect of activator on the reaction rate and kinetic parameters – Theory The mode of activation, essential or non-essential, depends on the values of the equilibrium constants, the rate constants of the limiting velocity steps and substrate concentration. Reversible enzyme activation implies the binding of the enzyme to the activator (A) which affects the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. A simple scheme to describe the interactions between an enzyme (E), a substrate (S) and the activator (A) is presented below.

Check for evidence of edema (swelling of the feet cheap 25 mg lioresal visa spasms after stent removal, legs and face) as well as excessive weight gain) discount lioresal 10mg fast delivery spasms left upper abdomen. The patient’s abdomen may look different, or the top of the uterus (the “fundus”) may appear lower. As the neck of the uterus (the cervix) relaxes, the patient may notice a mucus-like discharge, sometimes with a bloody component. This is referred to as the “bloody show” and is usually a sign that things will be happening soon. If you examine your patient vaginally by gently inserting two fingers of a gloved hand, you’ll notice the cervix is firm like your nose when it is not ripe and soft like your lips when the due date is approaching. As time goes on, the sides of the cervix will thin out until they are as thin as paper. Dilation of the cervical opening will be slow at first, and speed up once you reach about 3-4 cm. At this level of dilation, you will be able to place two (normal-sized) fingertips in the cervix and feel something firm; this is the baby’s head. To identify a contraction, feel the skin on the soft area of your cheek, and then touch your forehead. False labor, or Braxton-Hicks contractions, will be irregular and will abate with bed rest, especially on the left side, and hydration. If contractions are coming faster and more furious even with bed rest and hydration, it may just be time to have a baby! A gush of watery fluid from the vagina will often signify “breaking the water”, and is also a sign of impending labor and delivery. The delivery of a baby is best accomplished with the help of an experienced midwife or obstetrician, but those professionals will be hard to find in a collapse situation. If there is no chance of accessing modern medical care, it will be up to you to perform the delivery. Tuck a sheet under the mother’s buttocks and spread it on your lap so that the baby, which comes out very slippery, will land onto the sheet instead of landing on the floor if you lose your grip on it. Place a towel on the mother’s belly; this is where the baby will go once it is delivered. It will be very important to dry the baby and wrap it in the towel, as newborns lose heat very quickly. Newborns are also susceptible to infection, so avoid touching anything but mother and baby if you can. As the labor progresses, the baby’s head will move down the birth canal and the vagina will begin to bulge. If the water has not yet broken (which can happen even at this late stage), the lining of the bag of water will appear as a slick gray surface. To make space, place two gloved fingers along the edge of the vagina by the “perineum”. This will stretch the area somewhat to give the baby a little more room to come out. Encourage the mother to help by taking a deep breath with each contraction and then pushing while slowly exhaling. On occasion, a small cut is made in the bottom of the edge of the vagina to make room for the baby to be delivered. I always make this decision as the head is crowning; I will only perform an episiotomy if I believe a very large, jagged tear will occur that would damage the anal sphincter or rectum. As the baby’s head emerges, it will usually face straight down or up, and then turn to the side. In cases where the cord is very tight and is preventing delivery, you may choose to doubly clamp it and cut between. Next, gently hold each side of the baby’s head and apply gentle traction straight down. Occasionally, steady gentle pressure on the top of the uterus during a contraction may be required if the mother is exhausted. Many times, however, little if any help will be needed for the baby to deliver, (especially in a woman who has had children before). Put the baby immediately on the mother’s belly and clean out its nose and mouth with a bulb syringe. Spanking the baby’s bottom to get it to cry is rarely needed, and is more of a cliché than anything else.

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Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo buy lioresal 25 mg cheap spasms knee, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida order lioresal 25mg without a prescription muscle relaxant medications back pain, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Dominican Republic.......................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) France.................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Guatemala................................. Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Iran (Islamic Republic of)..................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Kenya..................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Lithuania................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) M auritania................................ Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) M ozambique................................ Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) New Zealand. Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Palau...................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Q atar...................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Samoa.................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Slovenia................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Sw itzerland................................ Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Tristan da Cunha............................ Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) U nitedKingdom............................. Consumo de otros estupefacientes: fentanilo, principales análogos del fentanilo y la piritramida, 2003-2007 (continuación) Fentanyl Alfentanil Remifentanil Sufentanil Country or non-metropolitan territory Year Piritramide Rémifentanil Pays ou territoire non métropolitain Année Fentanilo Alfentanilo Sufentanilo Piritramida Remifentanilo País o territorio no metropolitano Año (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Yem en..................................... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: otros derivados de los alcaloides del opio, 2003-2007 (For the explanatory notes to this table, see page 176 — Pour les notes explicatives à ce tableau, voir page 180 — Para las notas explicativas sobre este cuadro, véase página 184) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Drug — Stupéfiant — Estupefaciente (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Acetyldihydrocodeinea — Acétyldihydrocodéinea — Acetildihidrocodeínaa.... Consumo de otros estupefacientes: otros opioides sintéticos, 2003-2007 (For the explanatory notes to this table, see page 176 — Pour les notes explicatives à ce tableau, voir page 180 — Para las notas explicativas sobre este cuadro, véase página 184) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Drug — Stupéfiant — Estupefaciente (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) A nileridine— A niléridine— A nileridina............................... Comprend également la pentazocine, analgésique placé sous contrôle en vertu de la Convention de 1971. También está incluida la pentazocina, analgésico sujeto a fiscalización con arreglo al Convenio de 1971. Totales de las existencias de estupefacientes, 2003-2007 (For the explanatory notes to this table, see page 178 — Pour les notes explicatives à ce tableau, voir page 182 — Para las notas explicativas sobre este cuadro, véase página 186) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Drug — Stupéfiant — Estupefaciente (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Acetyldihydrocodeine — Acétyldihydrocodéine — Acetildihidrocodeína. Totales de las existencias de estupefacientes, 2003-2007 (continuación) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Drug — Stupéfiant — Estupefaciente (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Oripavine— Oripavina......................................... Comercio internacional: exportaciones de los principales estupefacientes, 2005-2007 (For the explanatory notes to this table, see page 178 — Pour les notes explicatives à ce tableau, voir page 182 — Para las notas explicativas sobre este cuadro, véase página 186) Opium alkaloids and their derivates Synthetic opioids Others Alcaloïdes de l’opium et leurs dérivés Opioïdes synthétiques Autres Alcaloides del opio y sus derivados Opioides sintéticos Otros Exporting country or non-metropolitan territory Year Pays ou territoire Dihydro- Dextropro- Année codeine poxyphene non métropolitain exportateur Codeine Ethylmorphine Diphenoxylate Methadone Pethidine Cocaine Año Dihydro- Morphine Oxycodone Pholcodine Dextropro- Fentanyl Tilidine País o territorio Codéine Éthylmorphine Diphénoxylate Méthadone Péthidine Cocaïne no metropolitano exportador codéine Morfina Oxicodona Folcodina poxyphène Fentanilo Tilidina Codeína Dihidro- Etilmorfina Dextropro- Difenoxilato Metadona Petidina Cocaína codeína poxifeno (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Argentina — Argentine 2005 150 — — 2 — — 32 — < < — 1 — — 2006 207 — — 6 1 — 217 — < < — 2 — — 2007 76 1 — 3 < < — 56 — 12 — 1 — — Australia — Australie 2005 19 153 — — 1 661 11 20 — — < < 9 50 — 1 2006 19 049 — — 2 709 < < 48 1 — 1 16 57 — 4 2007 26 996 — — 7 501 < < — 1 — < < 13 41 — < < Austria — Autriche 2005 — — — 424 59 — — — < < 2 277 — — 2006 — — — 586 75 — — — < < 1 258 — — 2007 2 — — 540 98 — — — 1 3 288 — — Barbados — Barbade 2005a — — — < < — — — — < < — 1 — — 2006? Comercio internacional: exportaciones de los principales estupefacientes, 2005-2007 (continuación) Opium alkaloids and their derivates Synthetic opioids Others Alcaloïdes de l’opium et leurs dérivés Opioïdes synthétiques Autres Alcaloides del opio y sus derivados Opioides sintéticos Otros Exporting country or non-metropolitan territory Year Pays ou territoire Dihydro- Dextropro- Année codeine poxyphene non métropolitain exportateur Codeine Ethylmorphine Diphenoxylate Methadone Pethidine Cocaine Año Dihydro- Morphine Oxycodone Pholcodine Dextropro- Fentanyl Tilidine País o territorio Codéine Éthylmorphine Diphénoxylate Méthadone Péthidine Cocaïne no metropolitano exportador codéine Morfina Oxicodona Folcodina poxyphène Fentanilo Tilidina Codeína Dihidro- Etilmorfina Dextropro- Difenoxilato Metadona Petidina Cocaína codeína poxifeno (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Slovenia — Slovénie — Eslovenia 2005 — — — 6 — — — — < < — — — — 2006 2 — — 7 1 — — — — — — — — 2007 — 1 — 11 4 — — — — — — — — South Africa — Afrique du Sud — 2005 60 — — 16 — < < < < — 92 < < 42 1 — Sudáfrica 2006 3 — — 9 — — — — 147 < < 68 1 — 2007 24 — — 15 — — — — 128 < < 123 < < — Spain — Espagne — España 2005 888 — — 3 — — — — < < — 841 — — 2006 1 556 — — 2 846 1 — — — — < < 800 — — 2007 282 — — 3 < < — 86 — < < 9 1 403 — — Sweden — Suède — Suecia 2005 61 — — 358 — — 300 — 4 — 3 — — 2006 < < — — 313 — — 600 — 4 — 4 — — 2007 < < — — 270 — — — — 5 — 2 — — Switzerland — Suisse — Suiza 2005 3 255 15 41 304 23 15 3 693 9 37 3 122 104 < < 14 2006 3 754 113 83 491 5 15 5 550 8 41 4 077 37 < < 4 2007 6 921 67 43 333 538 — 5 386 7 41 7 243 46 < < < < The former Yugoslav Rep. Yugoslava de Macedonia 2007 — — — 2 — — — — — 51 — — — Turkey — Turquie — Turquía 2005 2 914 — 83 61 — — — — < < — — — — 2006 3 069 — 81 75 — — — — < < — — — — 2007 2 866 < < 49 99 — — — — — — — — — Ukraine — Ucrania 2005 1 — — 19 — — — — < < — — — — 2006 1 — — 26 — — — — < < — — — — 2007 1 — — 16 — — — — < < — — — — United Kingdom — Royaume-Uni — 2005 16 833 2 445 — 8 176 6 660 731 335 14 7 2 494 245 < < 19 Reino Unido 2006 20 754f 3 576 f — 7 371f 7 370f 862f 979f 28 58f 2 510f 508f — 64 2007 20 338f,g 2 332 f,g — 9 353f,g 9 285f,g 1 580 810 32 99f,g 2 949f,g 234 — 78 United States of America — 2005 1 080 201 — 608 172 — 1 110 16 114 256 788 — 1 États-Unis d’Amérique — 2006 1 161 536 — 433 192 — 1 175 4 148 457 811 — < < Estados Unidos de América 2007 777 224 — 727 155 — 1 371 19 130 647 282 — < < W orld total 2005 94 498 7 160 803 21 018 9 809 4 451 96 375 3 114 2 716 7 804 4 869 13 554 343 Total mondial 2006 94 109 10 863 764 28 294 10 200 3 708 82 449 1 628 1 942 9 453 4 523 24 195 307 Total mundial 2007 107 045 9 289 823 26 259 12 322 3 586 83 291 3 183 2 613 13 709 4 558 19 515 477 aStatistics incomplete since not all quarterly reports were received. Comercio internacional: importaciones de los principales estupefacientes, 2005-2007 (For the explanatory notes to this table, see page 178 — Pour les notes explicatives à ce tableau, voir page 182 — Para las notas explicativas sobre este cuadro, véase página 186) Opium alkaloids and their derivates Synthetic opioids Others Alcaloïdes de l’opium et leurs dérivés Opioïdes synthétiques Autres Alcaloides del opio y sus derivados Opioides sintéticos Otros Importing country or non-metropolitan territory Year Pays ou territoire Dihydro- Dextropro- Année codeine poxyphene non métropolitain importateur Codeine Ethylmorphine Diphenoxylate Methadone Pethidine Cocaine Año Dihydro- Morphine Oxycodone Pholcodine Dextropro- Fentanyl Tilidine País o territorio Codéine Éthylmorphine Diphénoxylate Méthadone Péthidine Cocaïne no metropolitano importador codéine Morfina Oxicodona Folcodina poxyphène Fentanilo Tilidina Codeína Dihidro- Etilmorfina Dextropro- Difenoxilato Metadona Petidina Cocaína codeína poxifeno (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Afghanistan — Afganistán 2005a < < — — — — — — — — — < < — — 2006? Comercio internacional: importaciones de los principales estupefacientes, 2005-2007 (continuación) Opium alkaloids and their derivates Synthetic opioids Others Alcaloïdes de l’opium et leurs dérivés Opioïdes synthétiques Autres Alcaloides del opio y sus derivados Opioides sintéticos Otros Importing country or non-metropolitan territory Year Pays ou territoire Dihydro- Dextropro- Année codeine poxyphene non métropolitain importateur Codeine Ethylmorphine Diphenoxylate Methadone Pethidine Cocaine Año Dihydro- Morphine Oxycodone Pholcodine Dextropro- Fentanyl Tilidine País o territorio Codéine Éthylmorphine Diphénoxylate Méthadone Péthidine Cocaïne no metropolitano importador codéine Morfina Oxicodona Folcodina poxyphène Fentanilo Tilidina Codeína Dihidro- Etilmorfina Dextropro- Difenoxilato Metadona Petidina Cocaína codeína poxifeno (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Bhutan — Bhoutan — Bhután 2005a — — — < < — — — — < < — < < — — 2006? Bosnia y Herzegovina 2007a 1 — — 3 — 11 — — < < 4 — — — Botswana 2005 1 < < — 1 — — 3 — < < — 7 < < — 2006 4 < < — < < — — 4 — < < — 1 < < — 2007 5 < < — 3 — — 5 — < < — 4 < < — Brazil — Brésil — Brasil 2005 572 — — 1 173 9 — 60 — 1 < < 174 — < < 2006a 864b — — 2 857b — — — — < < — 91 — — 2007 1 573 — — 8 627 10 — 45 — 1 36 148 — — Brunei Darussalam — 2005 — — — 1 — — — — < < — 2 — — Brunéi Darussalam 2006 — — — < < — — — — < < — 2 — — 2007 — — — 1 — — — — < < — < < — — Bulgaria — Bulgarie 2005 2 133 17 16 54 4 — — — < < 25 13 17 — 2006 2 005 19 16 71 8 — — — < < 30 18 17 — 2007 1 554 17 16 64 6 — — — < < 40 — 9 — Burundi 2005 — — — < < — — — — < < — < < — — 2006a — — — < < — — — — < < — 1 — — 2007 — — — < < — — — — < < — 5 — — Cambodia — Cambodge — Camboya 2005 59 — — 1 — — 90 — < < — — — — 2006 40 — — < < — — 90 — < < — < < — — 2007 70 — — < < — — 180 — < < — < < — — Canada — Canadá 2005 14 738 < < — 2 535 3 453 — 180 26 35 707 958 — 19 2006 19 946 < < — 2 155 3 541 — 270 9 45 869 917 — 18 2007 17 472 < < — 2 856 4 649 — 90 20 77 1 223 527 — 12 Central African Republic — 2005a 6 — — < < — 2 3 — — — — — — République centrafricaine — 2006a 6 — — < < — 2 3 — — — — — — República Centroafricana 2007? Comercio internacional: importaciones de los principales estupefacientes, 2005-2007 (continuación) Opium alkaloids and their derivates Synthetic opioids Others Alcaloïdes de l’opium et leurs dérivés Opioïdes synthétiques Autres Alcaloides del opio y sus derivados Opioides sintéticos Otros Importing country or non-metropolitan territory Year Pays ou territoire Dihydro- Dextropro- Année codeine poxyphene non métropolitain importateur Codeine Ethylmorphine Diphenoxylate Methadone Pethidine Cocaine Año Dihydro- Morphine Oxycodone Pholcodine Dextropro- Fentanyl Tilidine País o territorio Codéine Éthylmorphine Diphénoxylate Méthadone Péthidine Cocaïne no metropolitano importador codéine Morfina Oxicodona Folcodina poxyphène Fentanilo Tilidina Codeína Dihidro- Etilmorfina Dextropro- Difenoxilato Metadona Petidina Cocaína codeína poxifeno (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) Costa Rica 2005 630 — — 11 — — — — < < 2 — — — 2006 273 — — 1 — — — — < < 2 4 — < < 2007 1 — — 5 — — — — < < 1 — — < < Croatia — Croatie — Croacia 2005 154 — — 4 < < — — — 2 45 9 — 1 2006 2 — — 3 1 — — — 1 2 — — 1 2007 — — — 4 1 — — — 1 113 — — < < Cuba 2005 414 — — — — — 903 — < < — — — — 2006 329 — — 15 — — 969 — 1 — 17 — — 2007 59 — — 20 — — 4 — < < — — — — Cyprus — Chypre — Chipre 2005 1 658 — — 2 1 — 1 193 — < < < < 4 — — 2006 53 — — 2 1 — 1 238 — < < < < 5 — — 2007 176 — — 2 1 — 1 080 2 < < < < 5 — — Czech Republic — 2005 172 — — 55 28 — — — 4 6 80 < < — République tchèque — 2006 242 — 9 65 30 — — — 4 12 91 — 2 República Checa 2007 225 — 4 57 48 — — — 6 11 30 — 2 Democratic Rep. Democrática del Congo 2007 27 — — < < — — — — < < — 2 — — Denmark — Danemark — Dinamarca 2005 1 979 — 25 2 605 1 986 — 45 — 10 497 68 — 2 2006 1 817 — 26 2 164 1 682 5 428 1 14 391 71 — 6 2007 2 224 — 13 2 334 1 479 — 68 1 15 455 67 — < < Dominican Republic — 2005 — — — 4 < < — — — < < — < < — — République dominicaine — 2006 — — — 8 2 — — — < < < < 1 — — República Dominicana 2007 — — — 5 — — — — < < — — — — Ecuador — Équateur 2005 144 15 — 1 2 — 338 9 < < < < — — — 2006 253 24 — 4 1 — 428 37 < < — — — — 2007 81 < < — 2 2 — 315 15 < < — — — — Egypt — Égypte — Egipto 2005 263 2 — 12 1 140 — — < < — 22 — — 2006 118 — — 1 — 45 — 5 < < — — — — 2007 355 2 — 9 1 25 — — < < — 44 — — El Salvador 2005 47 — — 2 1 — 1 — < < 1 14 — — 2006 23 — — < < 2 — 9 — < < 1 12 — — 2007 49 — — < < 4 — — — < < 2 16 — — Eritrea — Érythrée 2005 2 — — < < — — — — — — 9 — — 2006 2 — — < < — — — — < < — 1 — — 2007 — — — < < — — — — — — — — — Estonia — Estonie 2005 < < < < < < 7 1 — — — < < 9 5 — < < 2006 — — — 5 4 — — — < < 10 4 — < < 2007 < < — — 14 4 — — — < < 21 5 — 1 Ethiopia — Éthiopie — Etiopía 2005 — — — < < — — — — — — 2 — — 2006 — — — 5 — — — — — — 5 — — 2007 — — — < < — — — — — — 8 — — Finland — Finlande — Finlandia 2005 841 — 69 29 89 19 1 419 — 8 35 90 — 4 2006 1 090 — 23 13 134 38 1 836 — 9 6 47 — 3 2007 1 392 — 50 19 123 58 1 535 — 10 45 89 — 3 France — Francia 2005 10 268 — 179 580 — 43 832 < < 56 505 22 — < < 2006 370 936 1 10 121 250 — 26 414 — 58 495 30 < < < < 2007 129 932 < < 191 357 25 18 416 — 62 1 226 74 < < 5 French Polynesia — 2005 — — — 2 — — — — < < < < < < — < < Polynésie française — 2006 — — — 1 — — — — < < — < < — < < Polinesia Francesa 2007 — — — 2 < < — — — < < — — — — Gambia — Gambie 2005a — — — < < — — — — — < < < < — — 2006a < < 2 — < < — — < < — — — < < — — 2007? Democrática Popular Lao 2007 < < — — < < — — — — < < — 3 — — Latvia — Lettonie — Letonia 2005 1 — — 7 < < — — — < < — 5 — — 2006 1 — — 23 < < — — — < < 1 1 — — 2007 1 — — 3 < < — — — < < 2 2 — — Lebanon — Liban — Líbano 2005 41 — — 4 — — 90 — < < — 11 — — 2006 37 — — 4 — — 45 — < < — 11 — — 2007 39 — — 5 — — 45 — < < — 10 — — Lesotho 2005 — — — < < — — — — — — 1 — — 2006?